Department of Transportation

Division of Planning and Policy

17 Delaware Code, Sections 132, 190 and Chapter 10, and
29 Delaware Code Section 8404 (4) and (8)
(17 Del.C. §§190, 29 Del.C. §8404(4)(8))


Delaware Bicycle Facility Master Plan

Summary of the Evidence and Information Submitted

The Department published a draft of the Statewide Bicycle Facility Master Plan in the June 1, 2005 edition of the Delaware Register of Regulations. Publication in the Delaware Register of Regulations also signified the start of a 30-day public comment period that began on the same date and ended on June 30, 2005.

As a result of the aforementioned public outreach, the following is a summary of the comments received related to the Draft Plan:


The Department received an email from Joseph Lazorick, Construction Manager for Montchanin Development Group, that generally supported the Draft Plan.

The Department received an email from Thomas Benton Sr. in response to the bike plan draft that indicated a walkway is needed across the bridge at Delcastle High School.

The Department received an email from Alison Burris, Outreach Manager for the Wilmington Area Planning Council (WILMAPCO), that generally supported the draft plan. Two points of concern presented by Ms. Burris included providing a DelDOT phone number or website link to address minor maintenance issues and expanding the prioritization requirement from 1/4 mile of schools, colleges and employers to 1 mile.

The Department received an email from Enno Krebbers that generally supports the Draft Plan. Mr. Krebbers suggested that in addition to bicycle connections with Maryland and Pennsylvania the plan consider a bicycle connection with New Jersey. Currently it is possible to reach New Jersey by way of the Cape May/Lewes Ferry, but not via a bridge connection.

The Department received an email from Robert J. Downs, who had specific comments and concerns about bicycles on Route 1 in the Rehoboth area. Mr. Downs is concerned that bicyclists do not appear to follow the rules of the road and create a hazardous condition for both riders and drivers. Mr. Downs suggests that enforcement of the rules of the road and ticketing of bicyclists may aid in making the roadways safer.

In addition to the above, Department staff and its technical team made the following comments on the Draft Plan as part of their final review of the document.

With respect to the maps, the inclusion of the “Type of Facility Matrix” is confusing.
With respect to the maps, there are two segments of recreational connector routes in Sussex County that are incorrectly mapped.
Page 3 of the report reviews the “Role of the Plan”. This summary of the “Role of the Plan” does not seem to accurately reflect the role.
Pages 11, 17, and 19 of the report and pages 5 and 7 of Appendix A incorrectly identify the minimum width of a wide-outside travel lane to be shared by motorist and bicyclists.
Page 17 of the report does not include a 4 foot minimum facility guideline for uncurbed sections.
Section 2.3.1 reviews the definitions of a bikeway. The definitions are confusing.
Table 3.1 and Table A.1 need clarification of the abbreviations used.
Figure 3.6 represents conditions that may or may not be in conformance with AASHTO guidelines. Labels should be added to clarify which are in conformance and which are not.
Section 7.0 waiver process does not appear to accommodate changes initiated by DelDOT Planning. It is important that it be possible to initiate the waiver process from either Engineering or Planning.

Findings of Fact

Based upon the comments received and summarized above, the following changes were made the Draft Plan and the Maps:

Mapping Changes: The “Type of Facility Matrix” was removed from all maps to simplify map layout.
Mapping Corrections: Two segments of recreational connector routes were not correctly displayed on the Susses County map. These segments were corrected.
Report Correction: The minimum guideline width for wide-outside travel lanes was incorrectly identified as 12 feet. According to AASHTO and DelDOT Road Design Manual guidelines, the minimum width for a wide-outside travel lane to be shared by motorist and bicyclists on a designated route is 14 feet. This was corrected on pages 11, 17, and 10 of the report and pages 5 and 7 of Appendix A.
Report Change: Additional explanation was provided in the “Role of the Plan” section on page 3 for sake of clarity.
Report Change: Several sentences were removed from Section 2.3.1 on Bikeways on pages 11 and 12 for the sake of clarity.
Report Change: A key, identifying abbreviations for required and preferred guidelines, was added to Table 3.1 and Table A.1.
Report Change: Labels were added to the pictures in Figure 3.6 to identify which conditions were and were not in conformance with AASHTO guidelines for the sake of clarity.
Report Change: The distances at which priority should be given to bicycle facility improvements near schools and bicycle supportive employers was changed from 1/4 mile to 1 miles as a result of a public comment. Alison Burris commented that the 1/4 miles distance was too short and should be lengthened to 1 mile. Changes were made accordingly to section 5.1.2, 6.1 and 6.2 of the report.
Report Change: Additional explanation of the waiver process was added to Section 7.0 for clarification purposes.

These changes were made to the Draft Plan, and they are noted in the full citation that is part of the submission to the Delaware Register of Regulations. Additions are underlined and deletions are struck through.

Text and Citation

See Executive Summary and Plan.


Pursuant to the authority in 17 Delaware Code, Section 132, 190, and Chapter 10, and 29 Delaware Code, Section 8404 (4) and (8), as well as federal authority, and after due notice as required under the Administrative Procedures Act, the Department of Transportation hereby adopts the Delaware Bicycle Facility Master Plan effective October 10, 2005.

Comments or questions regarding the plan and how it will be administered should be directed to:

Joseph Cantalupo, Assistant Director of Planning

Delaware Department of Transportation

PO Box 778

Dover, DE 19903 PDF Version of Plan

(302) 760-2121 (telephone) (Adobe Acrobat Reader required)

(302) 739-2251 (fax)

APPROVED: Nathan Hayward III, Secretary, Delaware Department of Transportation, 9/13/05

ATTEST: Martha N. Dobson, Director, Division of Technology and Support Services, 9/14/05


The Bicycle Facility Master Plan was developed in order to define and implement a statewide system of designated, on-road bicycle routes. By designating a system of routes, DelDOT will take advantage of the existing system of roadways to provide improved bicycle travel options. The Bicycle Facility Master Plan provides specific guidance as to the location and nature of “appropriate accommodations” along DelDOT-maintained roadways.

The overall purpose of the Plan is to recognize bicycling as an integral part of the transportation system and provide for suitable accommodations for bicycles on the statewide roadway network. Implementation of the plan will achieve the following goals:

Integrate existing bicycle routes and trails to a larger, statewide bicycle network.
Establish bicycle routes between municipalities, activity centers, and recreational areas throughout the state.

Role of the Plan

The Bicycle Facilities Master Plan provides DelDOT with three tools with which to design and construct a continuous statewide network of bicycle facilities:

A statewide network of on-road bikeways. The plan designates a set of on-road bikeways which connect Delaware’s municipalities, activity centers, and recreational destinations.
A set of design recommendations for each type of bikeway. These will guide DelDOT and developers, letting them know what types of facilities are expected along each DelDOT-maintained roadway.
An implementation plan that identifies roles for stakeholders. Interviews with state agency staff and other stakeholders allowed DelDOT to distinguish DelDOT agency roles and roles for other stakeholders (Refer to Page 10 outline).

The Bicycle Facility Master Plan will be considered in conjunction with several other policies and programs including:

DelDOT Rails-to-Trails Program
Local and regional bicycle master plans
DNREC’s Greenways and Trails Master Plan

Bicycle Facility Needs

In order to understand the specific needs of bicyclists in Delaware, a public outreach program was undertaken for this Plan. As part of this process, participants identified a set of basic facility needs which influence their decision whether or not they are willing to bicycle (or let their children ride bicycles) on roadways.

Those basic needs were:

Clearly identified routes with consistently designed bikeways and signage.
A continuous network of bikeways connecting to residences, activity centers and recreational destinations.
Provision of safe crossings
Additional consideration for the needs of children

Facility Recommendations

Route Recommendations

The proposed network will consist of a hierarchy of bikeways, covering a range of mobility needs.

Design Recommendations

The routes in the statewide bicycle network will be improved incrementally as part of the regular cycle of DelDOT road construction and maintenance. Roadway projects with planned bicycle facilities will be based on the new bicycle facility design guidelines established in both the Facility Plan and the Road Design Manual. Some of the facilities which will be improved include:

Bikeways. For each type of designated bicycle route there are required and preferred bicycle facility features which should be installed. (See below) In satisfying the required features, Statewide, Regional, and Recreational Connectors bicycle routes can be built as bike lanes, shared shoulders, or wide outside travel lanes as determined by DelDOT staff. Refer to Page 4 for descriptions of bikeway types.
Traffic Controls. Traffic Controls may include signage, lane striping, bike lane symbols, and traffic signals. The Plan provides specific guidance as to the usage and placement of traffic controls along bikeways.
Intersection Treatments. The Plan details how striping, signage, and other bicycle facility improvements should be treated at intersections.
Bridge Treatments. Delaware’s bridges represent one of largest challenges to providing continuous bicycle routes. The design recommendations for bridge treatments are intended to enhance the safety of bicyclists.
Interchange Treatments. Bikeways crossing interchanges should be designed to minimize the conflict points between automobile traffic and bicyclists.
Other Design Considerations. The Plan also establishes guidance on drainage inlet grates, utility covers, and railroad crossings that are compatible with bicycling.
Bicycle Facility Features by Facility Master Plan Route Type
R = Required
P = Preferred
Type of Bicycle Routes
Statewide Bicycle Route
Regional Bicycle Route
Recreational Connector
Minimum Facility Width
Facility Improvements
Bike Route Number Signs
Warning & Regulatory Signs
Bicycle Symbols
Bicycle Friendly Drainage Grates
Right angles railroad crossings
Utility Covers out of path or flush

Description of Bikeways:

Bike Lane. Design guidelines include a 5 foot minimum lane width with striping, bike symbols, and route designation. Warning and regulatory signage shall be provided. The guidelines for Bike Lanes establish preferential use by bicyclists. This type of facility is most beneficial for less experienced riders (Group C) but difficult to fit within existing roadways.

Shared Shoulders. The paved shoulder should be a minimum of 5 feet wide. Includes some signage and bicycle symbols. This bicycle facility is intended to be shared by bicyclist and motorists. A shared bikeway maintains emergency use of the shoulder for motorist breakdowns/emergencies while providing a facility for bicyclists separated from the travel lane. Parking on shoulders should be prohibited. This type of facility is suitable for Type B or basic bicyclists.

Wide Outside Travel Lane. The guidelines include a [1214] foot wide outside travel lane to be shared by motorists and bicyclists. Warning and regulatory signage may be included but no striping shall be provided. This bikeway is most applicable for roadways with low speeds and lower traffic volumes and is intended for more advanced bicyclists.

Northern New Castle County

Statewide Bicycle Routes, Regional Bicycle Routes, and Recreational Connectors

The Plan recommends 126 miles of Statewide Bicycle Routes, 71 miles of Regional Bicycle Routes, and 301 miles of Recreational Connectors in New Castle County.

Southern New Castle County

Statewide Bicycle Routes, Regional Bicycle Routes, and Recreational Connectors

The Plan recommends 126 miles of Statewide Bicycle Routes, 71 miles of Regional Bicycle Routes, and 301 miles of Recreational Connectors in New Castle County.

Kent County

Statewide Bicycle Routes, Regional Bicycle Routes, and Recreational Connectors

The Plan recommends 92 miles of Statewide Bicycle Routes, 102 Regional Bicycle Routes, and 307 miles of Recreational Connectors in Kent County.

Sussex County

Statewide Bicycle Routes, Regional Bicycle Routes, and Recreational Connectors

The Plan recommends 117 miles of Statewide Bicycle Routes, 227 miles of Regional Bicycle Routes, and 366 miles of Recreational Connectors in Sussex County.

Plan Implementation

The key to implementing the Bicycle Facility Master Plan will be to integrate the recommendations into the regular cycle of roadway planning, design, construction, and maintenance.

Planning. DelDOT staff will be aware of the designated bicycle routes early, so that they can begin to evaluate bicycle facilities’ impacts on design and right-of-way requirements for a roadway project.

Design. The DelDOT Road Design Manual notes that the selection of a facility type should be determined in part by the presence of state and local bicycle master plans. This Facility Plan fulfills that role. Therefore, where a roadway project occurs along a route designated by the Bicycle Facility Master Plan, the project team should apply the appropriate design guidelines for the planned route.

Construction. Making DelDOT construction staff aware of the designated bikeways in the Bicycle Facility Master Plan will improve their understanding of the significance of site-specific bicycle improvements.

Maintenance. The DelDOT Road Design Manual provides guidance on pavement treatments regarding the transitions between the travel lane, shoulder, and gutter pan which should be taken into consideration during repaving projects to improve bicycling conditions.

The chart summarizes stakeholder roles in the plan’s implementation.

Role in Plan Implementation
Planning and Development
Planning - Development Coordination
² Use Bicycle Facility Master Plan to provide consistent guidance to developers
² Identify necessary improvement early stages of roadway planning
² Ensure developers aware of design standards for designated routes
Transportation Solutions
² Apply Bicycle Facility Master Plan design standards to designated routes
² Ensure improvements developed in planning and design properly implemented in the field
Maintenance & Operations
² Ensure repaving, reconstruction, and maintenance projects take into account design standards for bikeways
Traffic Engineering
² Consider bicycle crossings when determining timing of signals
Delaware Transit Corporation (DTC)
² Identify transit facilities suitable for bicycle lockers, bike racks, bikeway connections
² Provide bicycle lockers, bike racks at train stations, Park and Ride lots
Local Municipalities
² Develop local network of Feeder Routes which connect into statewide bicycle network
² Nominate transportation enhancement (TE) projects to tie Feeder Routes into Statewide and Regional Bicycle Routes
² Assist DelDOT in identifying local constraints, opportunities along designated bikeways
Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC)
² Provide feedback to DelDOT through Council on Greenways and Trails
Delaware Bicycle Council
² Pass along feedback from cyclists using the statewide bicycle network
² Advise DelDOT on areas requiring improvements
² Conduct bicycle safety programs
Metropolitan Planning Organizations (Dover-Kent MPO, WILMAPCO
² Review projects submitted for the Transportation Improvement Project, ensure projects take into account bicycle mobility
Delaware State Police Department
² Provide DelDOT with accurate bicycle accident data to identify conditions and locations requiring bicycle facility improvements
Delaware Office of Highway Safety & Homeland Security
² Pass along feedback from public regarding bicycle safety on DelDOT roadways
² Conduct bicycle safety programs
Delaware Department of Education
² Work with DelDOT in identifying schools for Safe Routes to School pilot project

*Please Note: Due to the size of the final regulation it is not being published here. To obtain a copy contact either the Department of Transportation of the Registrar’s Office.

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