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Delaware General AssemblyDelaware RegulationsMonthly Register of RegulationsJune 2014

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Ozone is generally not directly emitted to the atmosphere. It is formed in the atmosphere by photochemical reactions among volatile organic compounds (VOC), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and carbon monoxide (CO) in the presence of sunlight.  To facilitate planning, Sections 182(a)(1) and 172(c)(3) of the CAA require all ozone non-attainment areas to establish a comprehensive, accurate, and current inventory of actual emissions from all sources of the relevant pollutant or pollutants in the area by July 20, 2014 (i.e., two years after designation as nonattainment).  Delaware has previously been designated nonattainment for ozone under the 1990 1-hour and 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQSs, and has therefore been subject to this emission inventory requirement since 1990.  Delaware has developed emission inventories that meet the criterion of CAA 182(a)(1) and 172(c)(3) every three years since 1990, and Delaware’s latest comprehensive, accurate inventory of actual emissions from all sources of VOC, NOx and CO in the State covered calendar year 2011.
The Emission Inventory Development (EID) Program within the Planning Branch of DAQ was responsible for preparing the 2011 Periodic Emission Inventory (PEI) for criteria pollutants to include emissions of VOC, NOx and CO summarized in this report. Internal planning began in September 2011, with focus on the 2011 point source inventory reporting cycle taking place in March/April of 2012.
Inventory year – 2011;
Pollutants – VOC, NOx and CO as precursors to ozone;
Source coverage – all sources, including point, non-point, mobile, and non-road sources;
Spatial resolution – county level emissions;
Geographic coverage –New Castle County and Sussex County; and
Temporal resolution – annual and summer season weekday daily emissions.
Microsoft Excel® spreadsheets were employed for managing activity data and calculating emissions from stationary non-point sources and some non-road categories. A consistent set of tabs within each source category spreadsheet included activity data, point source data (if applicable, for backouts), emission factors, controls, emission calculations, NEI input formats, and notes on QA/QC procedures.
Emissions data were transferred from SLEIS (point sources), from the non-point and non-road spreadsheets, and from the model outputs to staging tables in Microsoft Access® databases. These databases were then converted to XML files via the EIS bridge tool, and then transmitted to the EIS via CDX web client by December 31, 2012 to meet the reporting requirements of the AERR.
The following emission summaries present the entire 2011 emission inventory for VOC, NOx, and CO for New Castle County and Sussex County broken down by source sector. Throughout this document, annual emissions are reported in tons per year (TPY) and summer season weekday daily emissions in tons per day (TPD). The totals may not match the sum of the individual values due to independent rounding.
Any facility with emissions greater than 5 TPY for VOCs or 25 TPY for NOx in 2008, 2009 or 2010, as previously reported to the DAQ inventory program; and
Solvent Use – Many products used by homeowners and businesses contain VOC solvents to achieve the intended purpose of the product. Paints, cleaners, pesticides, personal care products, and inks are a few examples of products that contain VOC solvents.
Gasoline Usage – The distribution and use of gasoline in vehicles and other gasoline-powered engines result in emissions of VOCs whenever the volatile gasoline vapors are allowed to escape.
Fuel Combustion – The combustion of fuels in industrial, commercial, institutional, and residential furnaces, engines, boilers, wood stoves, and fireplaces create emissions of VOCs, NOx and CO.
Open Burning – Open burning creates emissions of VOCs, NOx and CO. Open burning categories include trash burning, prescribed burning, burning of land clearing debris, wildfires, and house and vehicle fires.
The 2008 Delaware Periodic Emission Inventory served as the starting point for non-point source category selection and methodology development. New methods were applied to some existing source categories, and emission factors were updated where available. New methods and emission factors came primarily from current Emission Inventory Improvement Program, Volume III documents and documented projects performed by the California Air Resource Board (CARB). Other sources of information included the Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Volume I (AP-42), the Factor Information Retrieval System (FIRE), and several projects performed by the Mid-Atlantic Regional Air Management Association (MARAMA), the Eastern Regional Technical Advisory Committee (ERTAC) and EPA.
Non-reactive VOCs were excluded from emission estimates. Emission factors specified as non-methane organic carbon (NMOC) in AP-42 were used when available. In some instances, the AP-42 emission factor was in terms of total organic carbon (TOC) and the percentage of the methane component was indicated in a footnote. In these cases, the emission factor was reduced by the percentage of methane to remove the non-reactive methane component in the emission total. For example, for evaporative emissions from crude oil, the methane component was 15 percent. The emission factor was reduced by 15 percent to remove methane from the calculation.
Aircraft – Commercial, military, and private aircraft are considered under this source category.
Locomotives – Commercial line haul and yard locomotives are considered under this source category.
Commercial Marine Vessels (CMVs) – Various types of vessels that navigate the Delaware Bay and River and the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal are included under this source category. Recreational boats are included in the next category.
Other Off-road Vehicles and Equipment – All other off-road emission sources are accounted for through the use of EPA’s NONROAD model. The NONROAD model compiles off-road equipment pertinent to Delaware into the following subcategories:
The 2008 Delaware Periodic Emission Inventory served as the starting point for non-road source category selection and methodology development. No new sources were added to Delaware’s off-road mobile source inventory. However, a new version of the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS) were used for 2011.
Table 4-1. Summary of 2011 Non-road Emissions for New Castle County
Table 4-2. Summary of 2011 Non-road Emissions for Sussex County
Iexh = Eexh * A * L * P * N
where: Iexh = Exhaust emissions, (ton/year)
Eexh = Exhaust emission factor, (ton/hp-hr)