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Temporary Traffic Control


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Temporary Traffic Control
CHAPTER 6A. GENERAL
Section 6A.01 General
Support:
01A (DE Revision) This Delaware Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) Part 6, herein referred to as “Delaware MUTCD”, is published by the State of Delaware Department of Transportation and is issued to prescribe uniform standards and specifications for all official traffic control devices, in accordance with Title 17 of the Delaware Code.
01 Whenever the acronym “TTC” is used in Part 6, it refers to “temporary traffic control.”
Standard:
02 The needs and control of all road users (motorists, bicyclists, and pedestrians within the highway, or on private roads open to public travel (see definition in Section 1A.13), including persons with disabilities in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), Title II, Paragraph 35.130) through a TTC zone shall be an essential part of highway construction, utility work, maintenance operations, and the management of traffic incidents.
Support:
02A (DE Revision) TTC zones are defined as specified in the Delaware Code, Title 21, § 4105, (f)(2), and as contained below:
“As used in this subsection, the phrase ‘within any highway construction or maintenance area indicated by traffic-control devices’ shall mean that area between the first traffic-control device informing road users of their approach toward a work zone area until the last traffic-control device indicating all restrictions are removed and normal vehicle operations can resume. The phrase shall also include detour routes for highway construction or maintenance marked by traffic-control devices. ‘Traffic-control devices’ and ‘work zone’ shall have the same meaning as adopted pursuant to § 147 of Title 17, as amended. ‘Highway construction and maintenance area’ shall also include construction and maintenance for utilities or railroads within or adjacent to the highway rights-of-way.”
03 When the normal function of the roadway, or a private road open to public travel, is suspended, TTC planning provides for continuity of the movement of motor vehicle, bicycle, and pedestrian traffic (including accessible passage); transit operations; and access (and accessibility) to property and utilities.
04 The primary function of TTC is to provide for the reasonably safe and effective movement of road users through or around TTC zones while reasonably protecting road users, workers, responders to traffic incidents, and equipment.
05 Of equal importance to the public traveling through the TTC zone is the safety of workers performing the many varied tasks within the work space. TTC zones present constantly changing conditions that are unexpected by the road user. This creates an even higher degree of vulnerability for the workers and incident management responders on or near the roadway (see Section 6D.03). At the same time, the TTC zone provides for the efficient completion of whatever activity interrupted the normal use of the roadway.
06 Consideration for road user safety, worker and responder safety, and the efficiency of road user flow is an integral element of every TTC zone, from planning through completion. A concurrent objective of the TTC is the efficient construction and maintenance of the highway and the efficient resolution of traffic incidents.
07 No one set of TTC devices can satisfy all conditions for a given project or incident. At the same time, defining details that would be adequate to cover all applications is not practical. Instead, Part 6 displays typical applications that depict common applications of TTC devices. The TTC selected for each situation depends on type of highway, road user conditions, duration of operation, physical constraints, and the nearness of the work space or incident management activity to road users.
08 Improved road user performance might be realized through a well-prepared public relations effort that covers the nature of the work, the time and duration of its execution, the anticipated effects upon road users, and possible alternate routes and modes of travel. Such programs have been found to result in a significant reduction in the number of road users traveling through the TTC zone, which reduces the possible number of conflicts.
09 Operational improvements might be realized by using intelligent transportation systems (ITS) in work zones. The use in work zones of ITS technology, such as portable camera systems, highway advisory radio, variable speed limits, ramp metering, traveler information, merge guidance, and queue detection information, is aimed at increasing safety for both workers and road users and helping to ensure a more efficient traffic flow. The use in work zones of ITS technologies has been found to be effective in providing traffic monitoring and management, data collection, and traveler information.
Standard:
10 TTC plans and devices shall be the responsibility of the authority of a public body or official having jurisdiction for guiding road users. There shall be adequate statutory authority for the implementation and enforcement of needed road user regulations, parking controls, speed zoning, and the management of traffic incidents. Such statutes shall provide sufficient flexibility in the application of TTC to meet the needs of changing conditions in the TTC zone.
Support:
11 Temporary facilities, including pedestrian routes around worksites, are also covered by the accessibility requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) (Public Law 101-336, 104 Stat. 327, July 26, 1990. 42 U.S.C. 12101-12213 (as amended)).
Guidance:
12 The TTC plan should start in the planning phase and continue through the design, construction, and restoration phases. The TTC plans and devices should follow the principles set forth in Part 6. The management of traffic incidents should follow the principles set forth in Chapter 6I.
12A (DE Revision) The TTC plans should comply with the latest version of DelDOT’s “Work Zone Safety and Mobility Procedures and Guidelines”, available for download on the DelDOT website at http://www.deldot.gov.
Option:
13 TTC plans may deviate from the typical applications described in Chapter 6H to allow for conditions and requirements of a particular site or jurisdiction.
Support:
14 The provisions of Part 6 apply to both rural and urban areas. A rural highway is normally characterized by lower volumes, higher speeds, fewer turning conflicts, and less conflict with pedestrians. An urban street is typically characterized by relatively low speeds, wide ranges of road user volumes, narrower roadway lanes, frequent intersections and driveways, significant pedestrian activity, and more businesses and houses.
15 The determination as to whether a particular facility at a particular time of day can be considered to be a high-volume roadway or can be considered to be a low-volume roadway is made by the public agency or official having jurisdiction.
 
CHAPTER 6B. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
Section 6B.01 Fundamental Principles of Temporary Traffic Control
Support:
01 Construction, maintenance, utility, and incident zones can all benefit from TTC to compensate for the unexpected or unusual situations faced by road users. When planning for TTC in these zones, it can be assumed that it is appropriate for road users to exercise caution. Even though road users are assumed to be using caution, special care is still needed in applying TTC techniques.
02 Special plans preparation and coordination with transit, other highway agencies, law enforcement and other emergency units, utilities, schools, and railroad companies might be needed to reduce unexpected and unusual road user operation situations.
03 During TTC activities, commercial vehicles might need to follow a different route from passenger vehicles because of bridge, weight, clearance, or geometric restrictions. Also, vehicles carrying hazardous materials might need to follow a different route from other vehicles. The Hazardous Materials and National Network signs are included in Sections 2B.62 and 2B.63, respectively.
04 Experience has shown that following the fundamental principles of Part 6 will assist road users and help protect workers in the vicinity of TTC zones.
Guidance:
05 Road user and worker safety and accessibility in TTC zones should be an integral and high-priority element of every project from planning through design and construction. Similarly, maintenance and utility work should be planned and conducted with the safety and accessibility of all motorists, bicyclists, pedestrians (including those with disabilities), and workers being considered at all times. If the TTC zone includes a grade crossing, early coordination with the railroad company or light rail transit agency should take place.
Support:
06 Formulating specific plans for TTC at traffic incidents is difficult because of the variety of situations that can arise.
Guidance:
07 The following are the seven fundamental principles of TTC:
1. General plans or guidelines should be developed to provide safety for motorists, bicyclists, pedestrians, workers, enforcement/emergency officials, and equipment, with the following factors being considered:
A. The basic safety principles governing the design of permanent roadways and roadsides should also govern the design of TTC zones. The goal should be to route road users through such zones using roadway geometrics, roadside features, and TTC devices as nearly as possible comparable to those for normal highway situations.
B. A TTC plan, in detail appropriate to the complexity of the work project or incident, should be prepared and understood by all responsible parties before the site is occupied. Any changes in the TTC plan should be approved by an official who is knowledgeable (for example, trained and/or certified) in proper TTC practices.
2. Road user movement should be inhibited as little as practical, based on the following considerations:
A. TTC at work and incident sites should be designed on the assumption that drivers will only reduce their speeds if they clearly perceive a need to do so (see Section 6C.01).
B. Frequent and abrupt changes in geometrics such as lane narrowing, dropped lanes, or main roadway transitions that require rapid maneuvers, should be avoided.
C. Work should be scheduled in a manner that minimizes the need for lane closures or alternate routes, while still getting the work completed quickly and the lanes or roadway open to traffic as soon as possible.
D. Attempts should be made to reduce the volume of traffic using the roadway or freeway to match the restricted capacity conditions. Road users should be encouraged to use alternative routes. For high-volume roadways and freeways, the closure of selected entrance ramps or other access points and the use of signed diversion routes should be evaluated.
E. Bicyclists and pedestrians, including those with disabilities, should be provided with access and reasonably safe passage through the TTC zone.
F. If work operations permit, lane closures on high-volume streets and highways should be scheduled during off-peak hours. Night work should be considered if the work can be accomplished with a series of short-term operations.
G. Early coordination with officials having jurisdiction over the affected cross streets and providing emergency services should occur if significant impacts to roadway operations are anticipated.
3. Motorists, bicyclists, and pedestrians should be guided in a clear and positive manner while approaching and traversing TTC zones and incident sites. The following principles should be applied:
A. Adequate warning, delineation, and channelization should be provided to assist in guiding road users in advance of and through the TTC zone or incident site by using proper pavement marking, signing, or other devices that are effective under varying conditions. Providing information that is in usable formats by pedestrians with visual disabilities should also be considered.
B. TTC devices inconsistent with intended travel paths through TTC zones should be removed or covered. However, in intermediate-term stationary, short-term, and mobile operations, where visible permanent devices are inconsistent with intended travel paths, devices that highlight or emphasize the appropriate path should be used. Providing traffic control devices that are accessible to and usable by pedestrians with disabilities should be considered.
C. Flagging procedures, when used, should provide positive guidance to road users traversing the TTC zone.
4. To provide acceptable levels of operations, routine day and night inspections of TTC elements should be performed as follows:
A. Individuals who are knowledgeable (for example, trained and/or certified) in the principles of proper TTC should be assigned responsibility for safety in TTC zones. The most important duty of these individuals should be to check that all TTC devices of the project are consistent with the TTC plan and are effective for motorists, bicyclists, pedestrians, and workers.
B. As the work progresses, temporary traffic controls and/or working conditions should be modified, if appropriate, in order to provide mobility and positive guidance to the road user and to provide worker safety. The individual responsible for TTC should have the authority to halt work until applicable or remedial safety measures are taken.
C. TTC zones should be carefully monitored under varying conditions of road user volumes, light, and weather to check that applicable TTC devices are effective, clearly visible, clean, and in compliance with the TTC plan.
D. When warranted, an engineering study should be made (in cooperation with law enforcement officials) of reported crashes occurring within the TTC zone. Crash records in TTC zones should be monitored to identify the need for changes in the TTC zone.
5. Attention should be given to the maintenance of roadside safety during the life of the TTC zone by applying the following principles:
A. To accommodate run-off-the-road incidents, disabled vehicles, or emergency situations, unencumbered roadside recovery areas or clear zones should be provided where practical.
B. Channelization of road users should be accomplished by the use of pavement markings, signing, and crashworthy, detectable channelizing devices.
C. Work equipment, workers’ private vehicles, materials, and debris should be stored in such a manner to reduce the probability of being impacted by run-off-the-road vehicles.
6. Each person whose actions affect TTC zone safety, from the upper-level management through the field workers, should receive training appropriate to the job decisions each individual is required to make. Only those individuals who are trained in proper TTC practices and have a basic understanding of the principles (established by applicable standards and guidelines, including those of this Manual) should supervise the selection, placement, and maintenance of TTC devices used for TTC zones and for incident management.
7. Good public relations should be maintained by applying the following principles:
A. The needs of all road users should be assessed such that appropriate advance notice is given and clearly defined alternative paths are provided.
B. The cooperation of the various news media should be sought in publicizing the existence of and reasons for TTC zones because news releases can assist in keeping the road users well informed.
C. The needs of abutting property owners, residents, and businesses should be assessed and appropriate accommodations made.
D. The needs of emergency service providers (law enforcement, fire, and medical) should be assessed and appropriate coordination and accommodations made.
E. The needs of railroads and transit should be assessed and appropriate coordination and accommodations made.
F. The needs of operators of commercial vehicles such as buses and large trucks should be assessed and appropriate accommodations made.
Standard:
08 Before any new detour or temporary route is opened to traffic, all necessary signs shall be in place.
09 All TTC devices shall be removed as soon as practical when they are no longer needed. When work is suspended for short periods of time, TTC devices that are no longer appropriate shall be removed or covered.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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CHAPTER 6C. TEMPORARY TRAFFIC CONTROL ELEMENTS
Section 6C.01 Temporary Traffic Control Plans
Support:
01 A TTC plan describes TTC measures to be used for facilitating road users through a work zone or an incident area. TTC plans play a vital role in providing continuity of effective road user flow when a work zone, incident, or other event temporarily disrupts normal road user flow. Important auxiliary provisions that cannot conveniently be specified on project plans can easily be incorporated into Special Provisions within the TTC plan.
02 TTC plans range in scope from being very detailed to simply referencing typical drawings contained in this Manual, standard approved highway agency drawings and manuals, or specific drawings contained in the contract documents. The degree of detail in the TTC plan depends entirely on the nature and complexity of the situation.
Guidance:
03 TTC plans should be prepared by persons knowledgeable (for example, trained and/or certified) about the fundamental principles of TTC and work activities to be performed. The design, selection, and placement of TTC devices for a TTC plan should be based on engineering judgment.
04 Coordination should be made between adjacent or overlapping projects to check that duplicate signing is not used and to check compatibility of traffic control between adjacent or overlapping projects.
05 Traffic control planning should be completed for all highway construction, utility work, maintenance operations, and incident management including minor maintenance and utility projects prior to occupying the TTC zone. Planning for all road users should be included in the process.
06 Provisions for effective continuity of accessible circulation paths for pedestrians should be incorporated into the TTC process. Where existing pedestrian routes are blocked or detoured, information should be provided about alternative routes that are usable by pedestrians with disabilities, particularly those who have visual disabilities. Access to temporary bus stops, travel across intersections with accessible pedestrian signals (see Section 4E.09), and other routing issues should be considered where temporary pedestrian routes are channelized. Barriers and channelizing devices that are detectable by people with visual disabilities should be provided.
Option:
07 Provisions may be incorporated into the project bid documents that enable contractors to develop an alternate TTC plan.
08 Modifications of TTC plans may be necessary because of changed conditions or a determination of better methods of safely and efficiently handling road users.
Guidance:
09 This alternate or modified plan should have the approval of the responsible highway agency prior to implementation.
10 Provisions for effective continuity of transit service should be incorporated into the TTC planning process because often public transit buses cannot efficiently be detoured in the same manner as other vehicles (particularly for short-term maintenance projects). Where applicable, the TTC plan should provide for features such as accessible temporary bus stops, pull-outs, and satisfactory waiting areas for transit patrons, including persons with disabilities, if applicable (see Section 8A.08 for additional light rail transit issues to consider for TTC).
11 Provisions for effective continuity of railroad service and acceptable access to abutting property owners and businesses should also be incorporated into the TTC planning process.
12 Reduced speed limits should be used only in the specific portion of the TTC zone where conditions or restrictive features are present. However, frequent changes in the speed limit should be avoided. A TTC plan should be designed so that vehicles can travel through the TTC zone with a speed limit reduction of no more than 10 mph.
12A (DE Revision) TTC plans should be designed based on the posted speed limit or 85th-percentile speed unless conditions or restrictive features require reduced speed limits to accommodate all necessary TTC zone elements. TTC plans requiring a reduced speed limit should be approved by DelDOT Traffic.
13 A reduction of more than 10 mph in the speed limit should be used only when required by restrictive features in the TTC zone. Where restrictive features justify a speed reduction of more than 10 mph, additional driver notification should be provided. The speed limit should be stepped down in advance of the location requiring the lowest speed, and additional TTC warning devices should be used.
14 Reduced speed zoning (lowering the regulatory speed limit) should be avoided as much as practical because drivers will reduce their speeds only if they clearly perceive a need to do so.
Support:
15 Research has demonstrated that large reductions in the speed limit, such as a 30 mph reduction, increase speed variance and the potential for crashes. Smaller reductions in the speed limit of up to 10 mph cause smaller changes in speed variance and lessen the potential for increased crashes. A reduction in the regulatory speed limit of only up to 10 mph from the normal speed limit has been shown to be more effective.
Section 6C.02 Temporary Traffic Control Zones
Support:
01 A TTC zone is an area of a highway where road user conditions are changed because of a work zone, an incident zone, or a planned special event through the use of TTC devices, uniformed law enforcement officers, or other authorized personnel.
02 A work zone is an area of a highway with construction, maintenance, or utility work activities. A work zone is typically marked by signs, channelizing devices, barriers, pavement markings, and/or work vehicles. It extends from the first warning sign or high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights on a vehicle to the END ROAD WORK sign or the last TTC device.
03 An incident zone is an area of a highway where temporary traffic controls are imposed by authorized officials in response to a traffic incident (see Section 6I.01). It extends from the first warning device (such as a sign, light, or cone) to the last TTC device or to a point where road users return to the original lane alignment and are clear of the incident.
04 A planned special event often creates the need to establish altered traffic patterns to handle the increased traffic volumes generated by the event. The size of the TTC zone associated with a planned special event can be small, such as closing a street for a festival, or can extend throughout a municipality for larger events. The duration of the TTC zone is determined by the duration of the planned special event.
Guidance:
05 (DE Revision) Any planned special event that impacts traffic flow on state-maintained roadways should complete a Special Event Permit Application, available for download on the DelDOT website at http://www.deldot.gov.
Section 6C.03 Components of Temporary Traffic Control Zones
Support:
01 Most TTC zones are divided into four areas: the advance warning area, the transition area, the activity area, and the termination area. Figure 6C-1 illustrates these four areas. These four areas are described in Sections 6C.04 through 6C.07.
Section 6C.04 Advance Warning Area
Support:
01 The advance warning area is the section of highway where road users are informed about the upcoming work zone or incident area.
Option:
02 The advance warning area may vary from a single sign or high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights on a vehicle to a series of signs in advance of the TTC zone activity area.
Guidance:
03 Typical distances for placement of advance warning signs on freeways and expressways should be longer because drivers are conditioned to uninterrupted flow. Therefore, the advance warning sign placement should extend on these facilities as far as 1/2 mile or more.
Interstate / Expressway / Freeway
40 mph or less is “low speed” and over 40 mph is “high speed” on state-maintained roadways.
The column headings A, B, and C are the dimensions shown in Figures 6H-1 through 6H-46. The A dimension is the distance from the transition or point of restriction to the first sign. The B dimension is the distance between the first and second signs. The C dimension is the distance between the second and third signs. (The “first sign” is the sign in a three-sign series that is closest to the TTC zone. The “third sign” is the sign that is farthest upstream from the TTC zone.)
 
 
04 On urban streets, the effective placement of the first warning sign in feet should range from 4 to 8 times the speed limit in mph, with the high end of the range being used when speeds are relatively high. When a single advance warning sign is used (in cases such as low-speed residential streets), the advance warning area can be as short as 100 feet. When two or more advance warning signs are used on higher-speed streets, such as major arterials, the advance warning area should extend a greater distance (see Table 6C-1).
05 Since rural highways are normally characterized by higher speeds, the effective placement of the first warning sign in feet should be substantially longer—from 8 to 12 times the speed limit in mph. Since two or more advance warning signs are normally used for these conditions, the advance warning area should extend 1,500 feet or more for open highway conditions (see Table 6C-1).
06 The distances contained in Table 6C-1 are approximate, are intended for guidance purposes only, and should be applied with engineering judgment. These distances should be adjusted for field conditions, if necessary, by increasing or decreasing the recommended distances.
Support:
07 The need to provide additional reaction time for a condition is one example of justification for increasing the sign spacing. Conversely, decreasing the sign spacing might be justified in order to place a sign immediately downstream of an intersection or major driveway such that traffic turning onto the roadway in the direction of the TTC zone will be warned of the upcoming condition.
Option:
08 Advance warning may be eliminated when the activity area is sufficiently removed from the road users’ path so that it does not interfere with the normal flow.
Section 6C.05 Transition Area
Support:
01 The transition area is that section of highway where road users are redirected out of their normal path. Transition areas usually involve strategic use of tapers, which because of their importance are discussed separately in detail.
Standard:
02 When redirection of the road users’ normal path is required, they shall be directed from the normal path to a new path.
Option:
03 Because it is impractical in mobile operations to redirect the road user’s normal path with stationary channelization, more dominant vehicle-mounted traffic control devices, such as arrow boards, portable changeable message signs, and high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights, may be used instead of channelizing devices to establish a transition area.
Section 6C.06 Activity Area
Support:
01 The activity area is the section of the highway where the work activity takes place. It is comprised of the work space, the traffic space, and the buffer space.
02 The work space is that portion of the highway closed to road users and set aside for workers, equipment, and material, and a shadow vehicle if one is used upstream. Work spaces are usually delineated for road users by channelizing devices or, to exclude vehicles and pedestrians, by temporary barriers.
Option:
03 The work space may be stationary or may move as work progresses.
Guidance:
04 Since there might be several work spaces (some even separated by several miles) within the project limits, each work space should be adequately signed to inform road users and reduce confusion.
Support:
05 The traffic space is the portion of the highway in which road users are routed through the activity area.
06 The buffer space is a lateral and/or longitudinal area that separates road user flow from the work space or an unsafe area, and might provide some recovery space for an errant vehicle.
Guidance:
07 Neither work activity nor storage of equipment, vehicles, or material should occur within a buffer space.
Option:
08 Buffer spaces may be positioned either longitudinally or laterally with respect to the direction of road user flow. The activity area may contain one or more lateral or longitudinal buffer spaces.
09 A longitudinal buffer space may be placed in advance of a work space.
10 The longitudinal buffer space may also be used to separate opposing road user flows that use portions of the same traffic lane, as shown in Figure 6C-2.
11 If a longitudinal buffer space is used, the values shown in Table 6C-2 may be used to determine the length of the longitudinal buffer space.
Support:
12 Typically, the buffer space is formed as a traffic island and defined by channelizing devices.
 
 
13 When a shadow vehicle, arrow board, or changeable message sign is placed in a closed lane in advance of a work space, only the area upstream of the vehicle, arrow board, or changeable message sign constitutes the buffer space.
Option:
14 The lateral buffer space may be used to separate the traffic space from the work space, as shown in Figures 6C-1 and 6C-2, or such areas as excavations or pavement-edge drop-offs. A lateral buffer space also may be used between two travel lanes, especially those carrying opposing flows.
14A (DE Revision)
Guidance:
15 (DE Revision) The width of a lateral buffer space should be determined by engineering judgment. On interstates, freeways, or expressways, a lateral buffer space of one travel lane should be used, except where temporary traffic barrier is used to separate the work area from the traveled way, or if other conditions prevent the use of a lateral buffer space.
Option:
16 When work occurs on a high-volume, highly congested facility, a vehicle storage or staging space may be provided for incident response and emergency vehicles (for example, tow trucks and fire apparatus) so that these vehicles can respond quickly to road user incidents.
Section 6C.07 Termination Area
Support:
01 The termination area is the section of the highway where road users are returned to their normal driving path. The termination area extends from the downstream end of the work area to the last TTC device such as END ROAD WORK signs, if posted.
Option:
02 An END ROAD WORK sign, a Speed Limit sign, or other signs may be used to inform road users that they can resume normal operations.
03 A longitudinal buffer space may be used between the work space and the beginning of the downstream taper.
Section 6C.08 Tapers
Option:
01 Tapers may be used in both the transition and termination areas. Whenever tapers are to be used in close proximity to an interchange ramp, crossroads, curves, or other influencing factors, the length of the tapers may be adjusted.
Support:
02 Tapers are created by using a series of channelizing devices and/or pavement markings to move traffic out of or into the normal path. Types of tapers are shown in Figure 6C-2.
03 Longer tapers are not necessarily better than shorter tapers (particularly in urban areas with characteristics such as short block lengths or driveways) because extended tapers tend to encourage sluggish operation and to encourage drivers to delay lane changes unnecessarily. The test concerning adequate lengths of tapers involves observation of driver performance after TTC plans are put into effect.
Guidance:
04 The appropriate taper length (L) should be determined using the criteria shown in Tables 6C-3 and 6C-4.
05 The maximum distance in feet between devices in a taper should not exceed 1.0 times the speed limit in mph.
Support:
06 A merging taper requires the longest distance because drivers are required to merge into common road space.
Guidance:
07 A merging taper should be long enough to enable merging drivers to have adequate advance warning and sufficient length to adjust their speeds and merge into an adjacent lane before the downstream end of the transition.
 
0.5 L to L*
 
 
 
 
Support:
08 (DE Revision) A shifting taper is used when a lateral shift is needed. When more space is available, a longer than minimum taper distance can be beneficial. Changes in alignment can also be accomplished by using horizontal curves designed for normal highway speeds in accordance with the DelDOT Road Design Manual.
Guidance:
09 (DE Revision) A shifting taper length of L is preferred on state-maintained roads (see Tables 6C-3 and 6C-4).
Support:
10 A shoulder taper might be beneficial on a high-speed roadway where shoulders are part of the activity area and are closed, or when improved shoulders might be mistaken as a driving lane. In these instances, the same type, but abbreviated, closure procedures used on a normal portion of the roadway can be used.
Guidance:
11 If used, shoulder tapers should have a length of approximately 1/3 L (see Tables 6C-3 and 6C-4). If a shoulder is used as a travel lane, either through practice or during a TTC activity, a normal merging or shifting taper should be used.
Support:
12 A downstream taper might be useful in termination areas to provide a visual cue to the driver that access is available back into the original lane or path that was closed.
Guidance:
13 If used, a downstream taper should have a minimum length of 50 feet and a maximum length of 100 feet with devices placed at a spacing of approximately 20 feet.
Support:
14 The one-lane, two-way taper is used in advance of an activity area that occupies part of a two-way roadway in such a way that a portion of the road is used alternately by traffic in each direction.
Guidance:
15 Traffic should be controlled by a flagger or temporary traffic control signal (if sight distance is limited), or a STOP or YIELD sign. A short taper having a minimum length of 50 feet and a maximum length of 100 feet with channelizing devices at approximately 20-foot spacing should be used to guide traffic into the one-lane section, and a downstream taper should be used to guide traffic back into their original lane.
Support:
16 An example of a one-lane, two-way traffic taper is shown in Figure 6C-3.
Section 6C.09 Detours and Diversions
Standard:
01A (DE Revision) All detours affecting state-maintained roadways shall have a detour plan approved by DelDOT Traffic.
Guidance:
01B (DE Revision) Under emergency conditions, personnel should be provided to ensure safe roadway closure until proper devices are in place. Proper devices should be in place within 24 hours of the start of emergency operation.
Support:
01 A detour is a temporary rerouting of road users onto an existing highway in order to avoid a TTC zone.
Guidance:
02 Detours should be clearly signed over their entire length so that road users can easily use existing highways to return to the original highway.
Support:
03 A diversion is a temporary rerouting of road users onto a temporary highway or alignment placed around the work area.
Section 6C.10 One-Lane, Two-Way Traffic Control
Standard:
01 Except as provided in Paragraph 5, when traffic in both directions must use a single lane for a limited distance, movements from each end shall be coordinated.
Guidance:
02 Provisions should be made for alternate one-way movement through the constricted section via methods such as flagger control, a flag transfer, a pilot car, traffic control signals, or stop or yield control.
03 Control points at each end should be chosen to permit easy passing of opposing lanes of vehicles.
04 If traffic on the affected one-lane roadway is not visible from one end to the other, then flagging procedures, a pilot car with a flagger used as described in Section 6C.13, or a traffic control signal should be used to control opposing traffic flows.
Option:
05 If the work space on a low-volume street or road is short and road users from both directions are able to see the traffic approaching from the opposite direction through and beyond the worksite, the movement of traffic through a one-lane, two-way constriction may be self-regulating.
Section 6C.11 Flagger Method of One-Lane, Two-Way Traffic Control
Guidance:
01 Except as provided in Paragraph 2, traffic should be controlled by a flagger at each end of a constricted section of roadway. One of the flaggers should be designated as the coordinator. To provide coordination of the control of the traffic, the flaggers should be able to communicate with each other orally, electronically, or with manual signals. These manual signals should not be mistaken for flagging signals.
Option:
02 When a one-lane, two-way TTC zone is short enough to allow a flagger to see from one end of the zone to the other, traffic may be controlled by either a single flagger or by a flagger at each end of the section.
Guidance:
03 When a single flagger is used, the flagger should be stationed on the shoulder opposite the constriction or work space, or in a position where good visibility and traffic control can be maintained at all times. When good visibility and traffic control cannot be maintained by one flagger station, traffic should be controlled by a flagger at each end of the section.
Section 6C.12 Flag Transfer Method of One-Lane, Two-Way Traffic Control
Support:
01 The driver of the last vehicle proceeding into the one-lane section is given a red flag (or other token) and instructed to deliver it to the flagger at the other end. The opposite flagger, upon receipt of the flag, then knows that traffic can be permitted to move in the other direction. A variation of this method is to replace the use of a flag with an official pilot car that follows the last road user vehicle proceeding through the section.
Guidance:
02 The flag transfer method should be employed only where the one-way traffic is confined to a relatively short length of a road, usually no more than 1 mile in length.
Section 6C.13 Pilot Car Method of One-Lane, Two-Way Traffic Control
Option:
01 A pilot car may be used to guide a queue of vehicles through the TTC zone or detour.
Guidance:
02 The pilot car should have the name of the contractor or contracting authority prominently displayed.
Standard:
03 The PILOT CAR FOLLOW ME (G20-4) sign (see Section 6F.58) shall be mounted on the rear of the pilot vehicle.
04 A flagger shall be stationed on the approach to the activity area to control vehicular traffic until the pilot vehicle is available.
Section 6C.14 Temporary Traffic Control Signal Method of One-Lane, Two-Way Traffic Control
Option:
01 Traffic control signals may be used to control vehicular traffic movements in one-lane, two-way TTC zones (see Figure 6H-12 and Chapter 4H).
Section 6C.15 Stop or Yield Control Method of One-Lane, Two-Way Traffic Control
Option:
01 STOP or YIELD signs may be used to control traffic on low-volume roads at a one-lane, two-way TTC zone when drivers are able to see the other end of the one-lane, two-way operation and have sufficient visibility of approaching vehicles.
Guidance:
02 If the STOP or YIELD sign is installed for only one direction, then the STOP or YIELD sign should face road users who are driving on the side of the roadway that is closed for the work activity area.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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CHAPTER 6D. PEDESTRIAN AND WORKER SAFETY
Section 6D.01 Pedestrian Considerations
Support:
01 A wide range of pedestrians might be affected by TTC zones, including the young, elderly, and people with disabilities such as hearing, visual, or mobility. These pedestrians need a clearly delineated and usable travel path. Considerations for pedestrians with disabilities are addressed in Section 6D.02.
Standard:
02 The various TTC provisions for pedestrian and worker safety set forth in Part 6 shall be applied by knowledgeable (for example, trained and/or certified) persons after appropriate evaluation and engineering judgment.
03 Advance notification of sidewalk closures shall be provided by the maintaining agency.
04 If the TTC zone affects the movement of pedestrians, adequate pedestrian access and walkways shall be provided. If the TTC zone affects an accessible and detectable pedestrian facility, the accessibility and detectability shall be maintained along the alternate pedestrian route.
Option:
05 If establishing or maintaining an alternate pedestrian route is not feasible during the project, an alternate means of providing for pedestrians may be used, such as adding free bus service around the project or assigning someone the responsibility to assist pedestrians with disabilities through the project limits.
Support:
06 It must be recognized that pedestrians are reluctant to retrace their steps to a prior intersection for a crossing or to add distance or out-of-the-way travel to a destination.
Guidance:
07 The following three items should be considered when planning for pedestrians in TTC zones:
A. Pedestrians should not be led into conflicts with vehicles, equipment, and operations.
B. Pedestrians should not be led into conflicts with vehicles moving through or around the worksite.
C. Pedestrians should be provided with a convenient and accessible path that replicates as nearly as practical the most desirable characteristics of the existing sidewalk(s) or footpath(s).
08 A pedestrian route should not be severed and/or moved for non-construction activities such as parking for vehicles and equipment.
09 Consideration should be made to separate pedestrian movements from both worksite activity and vehicular traffic. Unless an acceptable route that does not involve crossing the roadway can be provided, pedestrians should be appropriately directed with advance signing that encourages them to cross to the opposite side of the roadway. In urban and suburban areas with high vehicular traffic volumes, these signs should be placed at intersections (rather than midblock locations) so that pedestrians are not confronted with midblock worksites that will induce them to attempt skirting the worksite or making a midblock crossing.
Support:
10 Figures 6H-28 and 6H-29 show typical TTC device usage and techniques for pedestrian movement through work zones.
Guidance:
11 To accommodate the needs of pedestrians, including those with disabilities, the following considerations should be addressed when temporary pedestrian pathways in TTC zones are designed or modified:
A. Provisions for continuity of accessible paths for pedestrians should be incorporated into the TTC plan.
B. Access to transit stops should be maintained.
C. A smooth, continuous hard surface should be provided throughout the entire length of the temporary pedestrian facility. There should be no curbs or abrupt changes in grade or terrain that could cause tripping or be a barrier to wheelchair use. The geometry and alignment of the facility should meet the applicable requirements of the “Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities (ADAAG)” (see Section 1A.11).
D. The width of the existing pedestrian facility should be provided for the temporary facility if practical. Traffic control devices and other construction materials and features should not intrude into the usable width of the sidewalk, temporary pathway, or other pedestrian facility. When it is not possible to maintain a minimum width of 60 inches throughout the entire length of the pedestrian pathway, a 60 x 60-inch passing space should be provided at least every 200 feet to allow individuals in wheelchairs to pass.
E. Blocked routes, alternate crossings, and sign and signal information should be communicated to pedestrians with visual disabilities by providing devices such as audible information devices, accessible pedestrian signals, or barriers and channelizing devices that are detectable to the pedestrians traveling with the aid of a long cane or who have low vision. Where pedestrian traffic is detoured to a TTC signal, engineering judgment should be used to determine if pedestrian signals or accessible pedestrian signals should be considered for crossings along an alternate route.
F. When channelization is used to delineate a pedestrian pathway, a continuous detectable edging should be provided throughout the length of the facility such that pedestrians using a long cane can follow it. These detectable edgings should comply with the provisions of Section 6F.74.
G. Signs and other devices mounted lower than 7 feet above the temporary pedestrian pathway should not project more than 4 inches into accessible pedestrian facilities.
Option:
12 Whenever it is feasible, closing off the worksite from pedestrian intrusion may be preferable to channelizing pedestrian traffic along the site with TTC devices.
Guidance:
13 Fencing should not create sight distance restrictions for road users. Fences should not be constructed of materials that would be hazardous if impacted by vehicles. Wooden railing, fencing, and similar systems placed immediately adjacent to motor vehicle traffic should not be used as substitutes for crashworthy temporary traffic barriers.
14 Ballast for TTC devices should be kept to the minimum amount needed and should be mounted low to prevent penetration of the vehicle windshield.
15 Movement by work vehicles and equipment across designated pedestrian paths should be minimized and, when necessary, should be controlled by flaggers or TTC. Staging or stopping of work vehicles or equipment along the side of pedestrian paths should be avoided, since it encourages movement of workers, equipment, and materials across the pedestrian path.
16 Access to the work space by workers and equipment across pedestrian walkways should be minimized because the access often creates unacceptable changes in grade, and rough or muddy terrain, and pedestrians will tend to avoid these areas by attempting non-intersection crossings where no curb ramps are available.
Option:
17 A canopied walkway may be used to protect pedestrians from falling debris, and to provide a covered passage for pedestrians.
Guidance:
18 Covered walkways should be sturdily constructed and adequately lighted for nighttime use.
19 When pedestrian and vehicle paths are rerouted to a closer proximity to each other, consideration should be given to separating them by a temporary traffic barrier.
20 If a temporary traffic barrier is used to shield pedestrians, it should be designed to accommodate site conditions.
Support:
21 Depending on the possible vehicular speed and angle of impact, temporary traffic barriers might deflect upon impact by an errant vehicle. Guidance for locating and designing temporary traffic barriers can be found in Chapter 9 of AASHTO’s “Roadside Design Guide” (see Section 1A.11).
Standard:
22 Short intermittent segments of temporary traffic barrier shall not be used because they nullify the containment and redirective capabilities of the temporary traffic barrier, increase the potential for serious injury both to vehicle occupants and pedestrians, and encourage the presence of blunt, leading ends. All upstream leading ends that are present shall be appropriately flared or protected with properly installed and maintained crashworthy cushions. Adjacent temporary traffic barrier segments shall be properly connected in order to provide the overall strength required for the temporary traffic barrier to perform properly.
23 Normal vertical curbing shall not be used as a substitute for temporary traffic barriers when temporary traffic barriers are needed.
Option:
24 Temporary traffic barriers or longitudinal channelizing devices may be used to discourage pedestrians from unauthorized movements into the work space. They may also be used to inhibit conflicts with vehicular traffic by minimizing the possibility of midblock crossings.
Support:
25 A major concern for pedestrians is urban and suburban building construction encroaching onto the contiguous sidewalks, which forces pedestrians off the curb into direct conflict with moving vehicles.
Guidance:
26 If a significant potential exists for vehicle incursions into the pedestrian path, pedestrians should be rerouted or temporary traffic barriers should be installed.
Support:
27 TTC devices, jersey barriers, and wood or chain link fencing with a continuous detectable edging can satisfactorily delineate a pedestrian path.
Guidance:
28 Tape, rope, or plastic chain strung between devices are not detectable, do not comply with the design standards in the “Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities (ADAAG)” (see Section 1A.11), and should not be used as a control for pedestrian movements.
29 In general, pedestrian routes should be preserved in urban and commercial suburban areas. Alternative routing should be discouraged.
30 The highway agency in charge of the TTC zone should regularly inspect the activity area so that effective pedestrian TTC is maintained.
Section 6D.02 Accessibility Considerations
Support:
01 Additional information on the design and construction of accessible temporary facilities is found in publications listed in Section 1A.11 (see Publications 12, 38, 39, and 42).
Guidance:
02 The extent of pedestrian needs should be determined through engineering judgment or by the individual responsible for each TTC zone situation. Adequate provisions should be made for pedestrians with disabilities.
Standard:
03 When existing pedestrian facilities are disrupted, closed, or relocated in a TTC zone, the temporary facilities shall be detectable and include accessibility features consistent with the features present in the existing pedestrian facility. Where pedestrians with visual disabilities normally use the closed sidewalk, a barrier that is detectable by a person with a visual disability traveling with the aid of a long cane shall be placed across the full width of the closed sidewalk.
Support:
04 Maintaining a detectable, channelized pedestrian route is much more useful to pedestrians who have visual disabilities than closing a walkway and providing audible directions to an alternate route involving additional crossings and a return to the original route. Braille is not useful in conveying such information because it is difficult to find. Audible instructions might be provided, but the extra distance and additional street crossings might add complexity to a trip.
Guidance:
05 Because printed signs and surface delineation are not usable by pedestrians with visual disabilities, blocked routes, alternate crossings, and sign and signal information should be communicated to pedestrians with visual disabilities by providing audible information devices, accessible pedestrian signals, and barriers and channelizing devices that are detectable to pedestrians traveling with the aid of a long cane or who have low vision.
Support:
06 The most desirable way to provide information to pedestrians with visual disabilities that is equivalent to visual signing for notification of sidewalk closures is a speech message provided by an audible information device. Devices that provide speech messages in response to passive pedestrian actuation are the most desirable. Other devices that continuously emit a message, or that emit a message in response to use of a pushbutton, are also acceptable. Signing information can also be transmitted to personal receivers, but currently such receivers are not likely to be carried or used by pedestrians with visual disabilities in TTC zones. Audible information devices might not be needed if detectable channelizing devices make an alternate route of travel evident to pedestrians with visual disabilities.
Guidance:
07 If a pushbutton is used to provide equivalent TTC information to pedestrians with visual disabilities, the pushbutton should be equipped with a locator tone to notify pedestrians with visual disabilities that a special accommodation is available, and to help them locate the pushbutton.
Section 6D.03 Worker Safety Considerations
Support:
01 Equally as important as the safety of road users traveling through the TTC zone is the safety of workers. TTC zones present temporary and constantly changing conditions that are unexpected by the road user. This creates an even higher degree of vulnerability for workers on or near the roadway.
02 Maintaining TTC zones with road user flow inhibited as little as possible, and using TTC devices that get the road user’s attention and provide positive direction are of particular importance. Likewise, equipment and vehicles moving within the activity area create a risk to workers on foot. When possible, the separation of moving equipment and construction vehicles from workers on foot provides the operator of these vehicles with a greater separation clearance and improved sight lines to minimize exposure to the hazards of moving vehicles and equipment.
Guidance:
02A (DE Revision) Workers should not enter unprotected travel lanes of interstates, freeways, or expressways during planned activities, including crossing the roadway to access the median or shoulder on the opposite side from the protected work area.
03 The following are the key elements of worker safety and TTC management that should be considered to improve worker safety:
A. Training—all workers should be trained on how to work next to motor vehicle traffic in a way that minimizes their vulnerability. Workers having specific TTC responsibilities should be trained in TTC techniques, device usage, and placement.
B. Temporary Traffic Barriers—temporary traffic barriers should be placed along the work space depending on factors such as lateral clearance of workers from adjacent traffic, speed of traffic, duration and type of operations, time of day, and volume of traffic.
C. Speed Reduction—reducing the speed of vehicular traffic, mainly through regulatory speed zoning, funneling, lane reduction, or the use of uniformed law enforcement officers or flaggers, should be considered.
D. Activity Area—planning the internal work activity area to minimize backing-up maneuvers of construction vehicles should be considered to minimize the exposure to risk.
E. Worker Safety Planning—a trained person designated by the employer should conduct a basic hazard assessment for the worksite and job classifications required in the activity area. This safety professional should determine whether engineering, administrative, or personal protection measures should be implemented. This plan should be in accordance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, as amended, “General Duty Clause” Section 5(a)(1) - Public Law 91-596, 84 Stat. 1590, December 29, 1970, as amended, and with the requirement to assess worker risk exposures for each job site and job classification, as per 29 CFR 1926.20 (b)(2) of “Occupational Safety and Health Administration Regulations, General Safety and Health Provisions” (see Section 1A.11).
Standard:
04 (DE Revision) All workers, including emergency responders, within the right-of-way who are exposed either to traffic (vehicles using the highway for purposes of travel) or to work vehicles and construction equipment within the TTC zone shall wear high-visibility safety apparel that meets or exceeds the Performance Class 2 or 3 requirements of the ANSI/ISEA 107–2004 publication entitled “American National Standard for High-Visibility Safety Apparel and Headwear” (see Section 1A.11), or equivalent revisions, and labeled as meeting the ANSI 107-2004 standard performance for Class 2 or 3 risk exposure, except as provided in Paragraph 5. A person designated by the employer to be responsible for worker safety shall make the selection of the appropriate class of garment.
Guidance:
04A (DE Revision) For nighttime activity and work on roadways with posted or statutory speeds of 50 mph or greater, safety apparel meeting the requirements of ISEA “American National Standard for High-Visibility Apparel” (see Section 1A.11) and labeled as meeting the ANSI 107-2004 standard performance for Class 3 risk exposure should be considered for all non-flagging personnel (instead of the Class 2 safety apparel in the Standard above).
Standard:
04B (DE Revision) At all times, flaggers shall wear high-visibility safety apparel that meets or exceeds the Performance Class 3 requirements of the ANSI/ISEA 107–2004 publication entitled “American National Standard for High-Visibility Safety Apparel and Headwear” (see Section 1A.11), or equivalent revisions, and labeled as meeting the ANSI 107-2004 standard performance for Class 3 risk exposure (see Section 6E.02 High Visibility Safety Apparel for Flagger Control).
Option:
05 Emergency and incident responders and law enforcement personnel within the TTC zone may wear high-visibility safety apparel that meets the performance requirements of the ANSI/ISEA 207-2006 publication entitled “American National Standard for High-Visibility Public Safety Vests” (see Section 1A.11), or equivalent revisions, and labeled as ANSI 207-2006, in lieu of ANSI/ISEA 107-2004 apparel.
Standard:
06 When uniformed law enforcement personnel are used to direct traffic, to investigate crashes, or to handle lane closures, obstructed roadways, and disasters, high-visibility safety apparel as described in this Section shall be worn by the law enforcement personnel.
07 Except as provided in Paragraph 8, firefighters or other emergency responders working within the right-of-way shall wear high-visibility safety apparel as described in this Section.
Option:
08 Firefighters or other emergency responders working within the right-of-way and engaged in emergency operations that directly expose them to flame, fire, heat, and/or hazardous materials may wear retroreflective turn-out gear that is specified and regulated by other organizations, such as the National Fire Protection Association.
09 The following are additional elements of TTC management that may be considered to improve worker safety:
A. Shadow Vehicle—in the case of mobile and constantly moving operations, such as pothole patching and striping operations, a shadow vehicle, equipped with appropriate lights and warning signs, may be used to protect the workers from impacts by errant vehicles. The shadow vehicle may be equipped with a rear-mounted impact attenuator.
B. Road Closure—if alternate routes are available to handle road users, the road may be closed temporarily. This may also facilitate project completion and thus further reduce worker vulnerability.
C. Law Enforcement Use—in highly vulnerable work situations, particularly those of relatively short duration, law enforcement units may be stationed to heighten the awareness of passing vehicular traffic and to improve safety through the TTC zone.
D. Lighting—for nighttime work, the TTC zone and approaches may be lighted.
E. Special Devices—these include rumble strips, changeable message signs, hazard identification beacons, flags, and warning lights. Intrusion warning devices may be used to alert workers to the approach of errant vehicles.
Support:
10 Judicious use of the special devices described in Item E in Paragraph 9 might be helpful for certain difficult TTC situations, but misuse or overuse of special devices or techniques might lessen their effectiveness.
 
 
CHAPTER 6E. FLAGGER CONTROL
Section 6E.01 Qualifications for Flaggers
Standard:
01A (DE Revision) All flaggers working on state-maintained roadways, except for emergency personnel and law enforcement officers, shall be certified by a DelDOT-recognized flagger certification program. All flaggers, except for emergency personnel and law enforcement officers, shall be required to carry a flagger certification card and photo identification on their person at all times.
Guidance:
01 Because flaggers are responsible for public safety and make the greatest number of contacts with the public of all highway workers, they should be trained in safe traffic control practices and public contact techniques. Flaggers should be able to satisfactorily demonstrate the following abilities:
A. Ability to receive and communicate specific instructions clearly, firmly, and courteously;
B. Ability to move and maneuver quickly in order to avoid danger from errant vehicles;
C. Ability to control signaling devices (such as paddles and flags) in order to provide clear and positive guidance to drivers approaching a TTC zone in frequently changing situations;
D. Ability to understand and apply safe traffic control practices, sometimes in stressful or emergency situations; and
E. Ability to recognize dangerous traffic situations and warn workers in sufficient time to avoid injury.
Section 6E.02 High-Visibility Safety Apparel
Standard:
01 (DE Revision) For daytime and nighttime activity, flaggers shall wear high-visibility safety apparel that meets or exceeds the Performance Class 3 requirements of the ANSI/ISEA 107–2004 publication entitled “American National Standard for High-Visibility Apparel and Headwear” (see Section 1A.11) and labeled as meeting the ANSI 107-2004 standard performance for Class 3 risk exposure. The apparel background (outer) material color shall be fluorescent orange-red, fluorescent yellow-green, or a combination of the two as defined in the ANSI standard. The retroreflective material shall be orange, yellow, white, silver, yellow-green, or a fluorescent version of these colors, and shall be visible at a minimum distance of 1,000 feet. The retroreflective safety apparel shall be designed to clearly identify the wearer as a person.
Guidance:
02 For nighttime activity, high-visibility safety apparel that meets the Performance Class 3 requirements of the ANSI/ISEA 107–2004 publication entitled “American National Standard for High-Visibility Apparel and Headwear” (see Section 1A.11) and labeled as meeting the ANSI 107-2004 standard performance for Class 3 risk exposure should be considered for flagger wear.
Standard:
03 When uniformed law enforcement officers are used to direct traffic within a TTC zone, they shall wear high-visibility safety apparel as described in this Section.
Option:
04 In lieu of ANSI/ISEA 107-2004 apparel, law enforcement personnel within the TTC zone may wear high-visibility safety apparel that meets the performance requirements of the ANSI/ISEA 207-2006 publication entitled “American National Standard for High-Visibility Public Safety Vests” (see Section 1A.11) and labeled as ANSI 207-2006.
Section 6E.03 Hand-Signaling Devices
Guidance:
01 The STOP/SLOW paddle should be the primary and preferred hand-signaling device because the STOP/SLOW paddle gives road users more positive guidance than red flags. Use of flags should be limited to emergency situations.
Standard:
02 (DE Revision) The STOP/SLOW paddle shall have an octagonal shape on a rigid handle. STOP/SLOW paddles shall be at least 24 inches wide with letters at least 8 inches high. The STOP (R1-1) face shall have white letters and a white border on a red background. The SLOW (W20-8) face shall have black letters and a black border on an orange background. When used at night, the STOP/SLOW paddle shall be retroreflectorized.
Guidance:
03 The STOP/SLOW paddle should be fabricated from light semi-rigid material.
Support:
04 The optimum method of displaying a STOP or SLOW message is to place the STOP/SLOW paddle on a rigid staff that is tall enough that when the end of the staff is resting on the ground, the message is high enough to be seen by approaching or stopped traffic.
Option:
05 The STOP/SLOW paddle may be modified to improve conspicuity by incorporating either white or red flashing lights on the STOP face, and either white or yellow flashing lights on the SLOW face. The flashing lights may be arranged in any of the following patterns:
A. Two white or red lights, one centered vertically above and one centered vertically below the STOP legend; and/or two white or yellow lights, one centered vertically above and one centered vertically below the SLOW legend;
B. Two white or red lights, one centered horizontally on each side of the STOP legend; and/or two white or yellow lights, one centered horizontally on each side of the SLOW legend;
C. One white or red light centered below the STOP legend; and/or one white or yellow light centered below the SLOW legend;
D. A series of eight or more small white or red lights no larger than 1/4 inch in diameter along the outer edge of the paddle, arranged in an octagonal pattern at the eight corners of the border of the STOP face; and/or a series of eight or more small white or yellow lights no larger than 1/4 inch in diameter along the outer edge of the paddle, arranged in a diamond pattern along the border of the SLOW face; or
E. A series of white lights forming the shapes of the letters in the legend.
Standard:
06 If flashing lights are used on the STOP face of the paddle, their colors shall be all white or all red. If flashing lights are used on the SLOW face of the paddle, their colors shall be all white or all yellow.
07 If more than eight flashing lights are used, the lights shall be arranged such that they clearly convey the octagonal shape of the STOP face of the paddle and/or the diamond shape of the SLOW face of the paddle.
08 If flashing lights are used on the STOP/SLOW paddle, the flash rate shall be at least 50, but not more than 60, flashes per minute.
09 Flags, when used, shall be red or fluorescent orange/red in color, shall be a minimum of 24 inches square, and shall be securely fastened to a staff that is approximately 36 inches in length.
Guidance:
10 The free edge of a flag should be weighted so the flag will hang vertically, even in heavy winds.
Standard:
11 When used at nighttime, flags shall be retroreflectorized red.
Option:
12 When flagging in an emergency situation at night in a non-illuminated flagger station, a flagger may use a flashlight with a red glow cone to supplement the STOP/SLOW paddle or flag.
Standard:
13 When a flashlight is used for flagging in an emergency situation at night in a non-illuminated flagger station, the flagger shall hold the flashlight in the left hand, shall hold the paddle or flag in the right hand as shown in Figure 6E-3, and shall use the flashlight in the following manner to control approaching road users:
A. To inform road users to stop, the flagger shall hold the flashlight with the left arm extended and pointed down toward the ground, and then shall slowly wave the flashlight in front of the body in a slow arc from left to right such that the arc reaches no farther than 45 degrees from vertical.
B. To inform road users to proceed, the flagger shall point the flashlight at the vehicle’s bumper, slowly aim the flashlight toward the open lane, then hold the flashlight in that position. The flagger shall not wave the flashlight.
C. To alert or slow traffic, the flagger shall point the flashlight toward oncoming traffic and quickly wave the flashlight in a figure eight motion.
Section 6E.04 Automated Flagger Assistance Devices
Support:
01 Automated Flagger Assistance Devices (AFADs) enable a flagger(s) to be positioned out of the lane of traffic and are used to control road users through temporary traffic control zones. These devices are designed to be remotely operated either by a single flagger at one end of the TTC zone or at a central location, or by separate flaggers near each device’s location.
02 There are two types of AFADs:
A. An AFAD (see Section 6E.05) that uses a remotely controlled STOP/SLOW sign on either a trailer or a movable cart system to alternately control right-of-way.
B. An AFAD (see Section 6E.06) that uses remotely controlled red and yellow lenses and a gate arm to alternately control right-of-way.
03 AFADs might be appropriate for short-term and intermediate-term activities (see Section 6G.02). Typical applications include TTC activities such as, but not limited to:
A. Bridge maintenance;
B. Haul road crossings; and
C. Pavement patching.
Standard:
04 AFADs shall only be used in situations where there is only one lane of approaching traffic in the direction to be controlled.
05 When used at night, the AFAD location shall be illuminated in accordance with Section 6E.08.
Guidance:
06 AFADs should not be used for long-term stationary work (see Section 6G.02).
Standard:
07 Because AFADs are not traffic control signals, they shall not be used as a substitute for or a replacement for a continuously operating temporary traffic control signal as described in Section 6F.84.
08 AFADs shall meet the crashworthy performance criteria contained in Section 6F.01.
Guidance:
09 If used, AFADs should be located in advance of one-lane, two-way tapers and downstream from the point where approaching traffic is to stop in response to the device.
Standard:
10 If used, AFADs shall be placed so that all of the signs and other items controlling traffic movement are readily visible to the driver of the initial approaching vehicle with advance warning signs alerting other approaching traffic to be prepared to stop.
11 If used, an AFAD shall be operated only by a flagger (see Section 6E.01) who has been trained on the operation of the AFAD. The flagger(s) operating the AFAD(s) shall not leave the AFAD(s) unattended at any time while the AFAD(s) is being used.
12 The use of AFADs shall conform to one of the following methods:
A. An AFAD at each end of the TTC zone (Method 1), or
B. An AFAD at one end of the TTC zone and a flagger at the opposite end (Method 2).
13 Except as provided in Paragraph 14, two flaggers shall be used when using either Method 1 or Method 2.
Option:
14 A single flagger may simultaneously operate two AFADs (Method 1) or may operate a single AFAD on one end of the TTC zone while being the flagger at the opposite end of the TTC zone (Method 2) if both of the following conditions are present:
A. The flagger has an unobstructed view of the AFAD(s), and
B. The flagger has an unobstructed view of approaching traffic in both directions.
Guidance:
15 When an AFAD is used, the advance warning signing should include a ROAD WORK AHEAD (W20-1) sign, a ONE LANE ROAD (W20-4) sign, and a BE PREPARED TO STOP (W3-4) sign.
Standard:
16 When the AFAD is not in use, the signs associated with the AFAD, both at the AFAD location and in advance, shall be removed or covered.
Guidance:
17 A State or local agency that elects to use AFADs should adopt a policy, based on engineering judgment, governing AFAD applications. The policy should also consider more detailed and/or more restrictive requirements for AFAD use, such as the following:
A. Conditions applicable for the use of Method 1 and Method 2 AFAD operation,
B. Volume criteria,
C. Maximum distance between AFADs,
D. Conflicting lenses/indications monitoring requirements,
E. Fail safe procedures,
F. Additional signing and pavement markings,
G. Application consistency,
H. Larger signs or lenses to increase visibility, and
I. Use of backplates.
Section 6E.05 STOP/SLOW Automated Flagger Assistance Devices
Standard:
01 A STOP/SLOW Automated Flagger Assistance Device (AFAD) (see Section 6E.04) shall include a STOP/SLOW sign that alternately displays the STOP (R1-1) face and the SLOW (W20-8) face of a STOP/SLOW paddle (see Figure 6E-1).
02 The AFAD’s STOP/SLOW sign shall have an octagonal shape, shall be fabricated of rigid material, and shall be mounted with the bottom of the sign a minimum of 6 feet above the pavement on an appropriate support. The size of the STOP/SLOW sign shall be at least 24 x 24 inches with letters at least 8 inches high. The background of the STOP face shall be red with white letters and border. The background of the SLOW face shall be diamond shaped and orange with black letters and border. Both faces of the STOP/SLOW sign shall be retroreflectorized.
03 The AFAD’s STOP/SLOW sign shall have a means to positively lock, engage, or otherwise maintain the sign assembly in a stable condition when set in the STOP or SLOW position.
04 The AFAD’s STOP/SLOW sign shall be supplemented with active conspicuity devices by incorporating either:
A. White or red flashing lights within the STOP face and white or yellow flashing lights within the SLOW face meeting the provisions contained in Section 6E.03; or
B. A Stop Beacon (see Section 4L.05) mounted a maximum of 24 inches above the STOP face and a Warning Beacon (see Section 4L.03) mounted a maximum of 24 inches above, below, or to the side of the SLOW face. The Stop Beacon shall not be flashed or illuminated when the SLOW face is displayed, and the Warning Beacon shall not be flashed or illuminated when the STOP face is displayed. Except for the mounting locations, the beacons shall comply with the provisions of Chapter 4L.
Option:
05 Type B warning light(s) (see Section 6F.83) may be used in lieu of the Warning Beacon during the display of the SLOW face of the AFAD’s STOP/SLOW sign.
Standard:
06 If Type B warning lights are used in lieu of a Warning Beacon, they shall flash continuously when the SLOW face is displayed and shall not be flashed or illuminated when the STOP face is displayed.
Option:
07 The faces of the AFAD’s STOP/SLOW sign may include louvers to improve the stability of the device in windy or other adverse environmental conditions.
Standard:
08 If louvers are used, the louvers shall be designed such that the full sign face is visible to approaching traffic at a distance of 50 feet or greater.
Guidance:
09 The STOP/SLOW AFAD should include a gate arm that descends to a down position across the approach lane of traffic when the STOP face is displayed and then ascends to an upright position when the SLOW face is displayed.
Option:
10 In lieu of a stationary STOP/SLOW sign with a separate gate arm, the STOP/SLOW sign may be attached to a mast arm that physically blocks the approach lane of traffic when the STOP face is displayed and then moves to a position that does not block the approach lane when the SLOW face is displayed.
Standard:
11 Gate arms, if used, shall be fully retroreflectorized on both sides, and shall have vertical alternating red and white stripes at 16-inch intervals measured horizontally as shown in Figure 8C-1. When the arm is in the down position blocking the approach lane:
A. The minimum vertical aspect of the arm and sheeting shall be 2 inches; and
B. The end of the arm shall reach at least to the center of the lane being controlled.
12 A WAIT ON STOP (R1-7) sign (see Figure 6E-1) shall be displayed to road users approaching the AFAD.
Option:
13 A GO ON SLOW (R1-8) sign (see Figure 6E-1) may also be displayed to road users approaching the AFAD.
Standard:
14 The GO ON SLOW sign, if used, and the WAIT ON STOP sign shall be positioned on the same support structure as the AFAD or immediately adjacent to the AFAD such that they are in the same direct line of view of approaching traffic as the sign faces of the AFAD. Both signs shall have black legends and borders on white backgrounds. Each of these signs shall be rectangular in shape and each shall be at least 24 x 30 inches in size with letters at least 6 inches high.
15 To inform road users to stop, the AFAD shall display the STOP face and the red or white lights, if used, within the STOP face shall flash or the Stop Beacon shall flash. To inform road users to proceed, the AFAD shall display the SLOW face and the yellow or white lights, if used, within the SLOW face shall flash or the Warning Beacon or the Type B warning lights shall flash.
16 If STOP/SLOW AFADs are used to control traffic in a one-lane, two-way TTC zone, safeguards shall be incorporated to prevent the flagger(s) from simultaneously displaying the SLOW face at each end of the TTC zone. Additionally, the flagger(s) shall not display the AFAD’s SLOW face until all oncoming vehicles have cleared the one-lane portion of the TTC zone.
Section 6E.06 Red/Yellow Lens Automated Flagger Assistance Devices
Standard:
01 A Red/Yellow Lens Automated Flagger Assistance Device (AFAD) (see Section 6E.04) shall alternately display a steadily illuminated CIRCULAR RED lens and a flashing CIRCULAR YELLOW lens to control
traffic without the need for a flagger in the immediate vicinity of the AFAD or on the roadway (see Figure 6E-2).
01A (DE Revision) Red/Yellow Lens AFADs shall not be used on state-maintained roads unless approved by DelDOT Traffic.
02 (DE Revision) Red/Yellow Lens AFADs shall have at least one set of CIRCULAR RED and CIRCULAR YELLOW lenses that are 12 inches in diameter (see Section 4L.05). Unless otherwise provided in this Section, the lenses and their arrangement, CIRCULAR RED on top and CIRCULAR YELLOW below, shall comply with the applicable provisions for traffic signal indications in Part 4. If the set of lenses is post-mounted, the bottom of the housing (including brackets) shall be at least 7 feet above the pavement. If the set of lenses is located over any portion of the highway that can be used by motor vehicles, the bottom of the housing (including brackets) shall be at least 15 feet above the pavement.
Option:
03 Additional sets of CIRCULAR RED and CIRCULAR YELLOW lenses, located over the roadway or on the left-hand side of the approach and operated in unison with the primary set, may be used to improve visibility and/or conspicuity of the AFAD.
Standard:
04 A Red/Yellow Lens AFAD shall include a gate arm that descends to a down position across the approach lane of traffic when the steady CIRCULAR RED lens is illuminated and then ascends to an upright position when the flashing CIRCULAR YELLOW lens is illuminated. The gate arm shall be fully retroreflectorized on both sides, and shall have vertical alternating red and white stripes at 16-inch intervals measured horizontally as shown in Figure 8C-1. When the arm is in the down position blocking the approach lane:
A. The minimum vertical aspect of the arm and sheeting shall be 2 inches; and
B. The end of the arm shall reach at least to the center of the lane being controlled.
05 A Stop Here On Red (R10-6 or R10-6a) sign (see Section 2B.53) shall be installed on the right-hand side of the approach at the point at which drivers are expected to stop when the steady CIRCULAR RED lens is illuminated (see Figure 6E-2).
06 To inform road users to stop, the AFAD shall display a steadily illuminated CIRCULAR RED lens and the gate arm shall be in the down position. To inform road users to proceed, the AFAD shall display a flashing CIRCULAR YELLOW lens and the gate arm shall be in the upright position.
07 If Red/Yellow Lens AFADs are used to control traffic in a one-lane, two-way TTC zone, safeguards shall be incorporated to prevent the flagger(s) from actuating a simultaneous display of a flashing CIRCULAR YELLOW lens at each end of the TTC zone. Additionally, the flagger shall not actuate the AFAD’s display of the flashing CIRCULAR YELLOW lens until all oncoming vehicles have cleared the one-lane portion of the TTC zone.
08 A change interval shall be provided as the transition between the display of the flashing CIRCULAR YELLOW indication and the display of the steady CIRCULAR RED indication. During the change interval, the CIRCULAR YELLOW lens shall be steadily illuminated. The gate arm shall remain in the upright position during the display of the steadily illuminated CIRCULAR YELLOW change interval.
09 A change interval shall not be provided between the display of the steady CIRCULAR RED indication and the display of the flashing CIRCULAR YELLOW indication.
Guidance:
10 The steadily illuminated CIRCULAR YELLOW change interval should have a duration of at least 5 seconds, unless a different duration, within the range of durations recommended by Section 4D.26, is justified by engineering judgment.
Section 6E.07 Flagger Procedures
Support:
01 The use of paddles and flags by flaggers is illustrated in Figure 6E-3.
 
Guidance:
01A (DE Revision) The STOP/SLOW paddle should be the primary and preferred hand-signaling device because the STOP/SLOW paddle gives road users more positive guidance than red flags. Use of flags should be limited to emergency situations.
Standard:
02 Flaggers shall use a STOP/SLOW paddle, a flag, or an Automated Flagger Assistance Device (AFAD) to control road users approaching a TTC zone. The use of hand movements alone without a paddle, flag, or AFAD to control road users shall be prohibited except for law enforcement personnel or emergency responders at incident scenes as described in Section 6I.01.
03 The following methods of signaling with paddles shall be used:
A. To stop road users, the flagger shall face road users and aim the STOP paddle face toward road users in a stationary position with the arm extended horizontally away from the body. The free arm shall be held with the palm of the hand above shoulder level toward approaching traffic.
B. To direct stopped road users to proceed, the flagger shall face road users with the SLOW paddle face aimed toward road users in a stationary position with the arm extended horizontally away from the body. The flagger shall motion with the free hand for road users to proceed.
C. To alert or slow traffic, the flagger shall face road users with the SLOW paddle face aimed toward road users in a stationary position with the arm extended horizontally away from the body.
Option:
04 To further alert or slow traffic, the flagger holding the SLOW paddle face toward road users may motion up and down with the free hand, palm down.
Standard:
05 The following methods of signaling with a flag shall be used:
A. To stop road users, the flagger shall face road users and extend the flag staff horizontally across the road users’ lane in a stationary position so that the full area of the flag is visibly hanging below the staff. The free arm shall be held with the palm of the hand above shoulder level toward approaching traffic.
B. To direct stopped road users to proceed, the flagger shall face road users with the flag and arm lowered from the view of the road users, and shall motion with the free hand for road users to proceed. Flags shall not be used to signal road users to proceed.
C. To alert or slow traffic, the flagger shall face road users and slowly wave the flag in a sweeping motion of the extended arm from shoulder level to straight down without raising the arm above a horizontal position. The flagger shall keep the free hand down.
Guidance:
06 The flagger should stand either on the shoulder adjacent to the road user being controlled or in the closed lane prior to stopping road users. A flagger should only stand in the lane being used by moving road users after road users have stopped. The flagger should be clearly visible to the first approaching road user at all times. The flagger also should be visible to other road users. The flagger should be stationed sufficiently in advance of the workers to warn them (for example, with audible warning devices such as horns or whistles) of approaching danger by out-of-control vehicles. The flagger should stand alone, away from other workers, work vehicles, or equipment.
Option:
07 At spot lane closures where adequate sight distance is available for the reasonably safe handling of traffic, the use of one flagger may be sufficient.
Guidance:
08 When a single flagger is used, the flagger should be stationed on the shoulder opposite the spot lane closure or work space, or in a position where good visibility and traffic control can be maintained at all times.
Section 6E.08 Flagger Stations
Standard:
01 Flagger stations shall be located such that approaching road users will have sufficient distance to stop at an intended stopping point.
Option:
02 The distances shown in Table 6E-1, which provides information regarding the stopping sight distance as a function of speed, may be used for the location of a flagger station. These distances may be increased for downgrades and other conditions that affect stopping distance.
Guidance:
03 Flagger stations should be located such that an errant vehicle has additional space to stop without entering the work space. The flagger should identify an escape route that can be used to avoid being struck by an errant vehicle.
Standard:
04 Except in emergency situations, flagger stations shall be preceded by an advance warning sign or signs. Except in emergency situations, flagger stations shall be illuminated at night.
05 (DE Revision) Except in emergency situations, flagger stations shall be illuminated at night with a minimum average horizontal luminance of 50 lux (5 foot candles).
Support:
06 (DE Revision) A horizontal luminance of 50 lux (5 foot candles) can typically be achieved by a light plant featuring four (4) 1000 watt metal halide light fixtures, positioned within 15 feet of the flagging station at a minimum mounting height of 15 feet.
Guidance:
07 (DE Revision) For flagger operations at night, a minimum of one (1) light plant should be dedicated to the flagger operation. Light fixtures should be positioned so as not to cause glare problems for vehicles approaching from any direction.
Standard:
08 (DE Revision) When grade crossings exist either within or in the vicinity of a TTC zone, lane restrictions, flagging, or other operations shall not create conditions where vehicles can be queued across the tracks. If the queuing of vehicles across the tracks cannot be avoided, a uniformed law enforcement officer or flagger shall be provided at the upstream side of the crossing to prevent vehicles from stopping within the grade crossing, considered to be 50 feet on either side of the closest and farthest rail, even if automatic warning devices are in place.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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CHAPTER 6F. TEMPORARY TRAFFIC CONTROL ZONE DEVICES
Section 6F.01 Types of Devices
Guidance:
01 The design and application of TTC devices used in TTC zones should consider the needs of all road users (motorists, bicyclists, and pedestrians), including those with disabilities.
Support:
02 FHWA policy requires that all roadside appurtenances such as traffic barriers, barrier terminals and crash cushions, bridge railings, sign and light pole supports, and work zone hardware used on the National Highway System meet the crashworthy performance criteria contained in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 350, “Recommended Procedures for the Safety Performance Evaluation of Highway Features.” The FHWA website at “http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/programs/roadside_hardware.htm” identifies all such hardware and includes copies of FHWA acceptance letters for each of them. In the case of proprietary items, links are provided to manufacturers’ websites as a source of detailed information on specific devices. The website also contains an “Ask the Experts” section where questions on roadside design issues can be addressed.
03 Various Sections of the MUTCD require certain traffic control devices, their supports, and/or related appurtenances to be crashworthy. Such MUTCD crashworthiness provisions apply to all streets, highways, and private roads open to public travel. Also, State Departments of Transportation and local agencies might have expanded the NCHRP Report 350 crashworthy criteria to apply to certain other roadside appurtenances.
04 Crashworthiness and crash testing information on devices described in Part 6 are found in AASHTO’s “Roadside Design Guide” (see Section 1A.11).
05 As defined in Section 1A.13, “crashworthy” is a characteristic of a roadside appurtenance that has been successfully crash tested in accordance with a national standard such as the NCHRP Report 350, “Recommended Procedures for the Safety Performance Evaluation of Highway Features.”
05A (DE Revision) Information on the maintenance of TTC devices is contained in “Quality Guidelines for Work Zone Traffic Control Devices”, published by the American Traffic Safety Services Association (ATSSA) and is available at the ATSSA website “http://www.atssa.com”.
Standard:
06 Traffic control devices shall be defined as all signs, signals, markings, and other devices used to regulate, warn, or guide road users, placed on, over, or adjacent to a street, highway, private roads open to public travel (see definition in Section 1A.13), pedestrian facility, or bikeway by authority of a public body or official having jurisdiction.
07 All traffic control devices used for construction, maintenance, utility, or incident management operations on a street, highway, or private road open to public travel (see definition in Section 1A.13) shall comply with the applicable provisions of this Manual.
Section 6F.02 General Characteristics of Signs
Support:
01 TTC zone signs convey both general and specific messages by means of words, symbols, and/or arrows and have the same three categories as all road user signs: regulatory, warning, and guide.
Standard:
02 (DE Revision) The colors for regulatory signs shall follow the Standards for regulatory signs in Table 2A-5 and Chapter 2B. Warning signs in TTC zones shall have a black legend and border on a fluorescent orange background, except for the Grade Crossing Advance Warning (W10-1) sign which shall have a black legend and border on a yellow background, and except for signs that are required or recommended in Parts 2 or 7 to have fluorescent yellow-green backgrounds. Colors for guide signs shall follow the Standards in Table 2A-5 and Chapter 2D, except for guide signs as otherwise provided in Section 6F.55.
Option:
03 (DE Revision) Paragraph deleted.
Support:
04 The fluorescent version of orange provides higher conspicuity than standard orange, especially during twilight.
Option:
05 Existing warning signs that are still applicable may remain in place.
06 In order to maintain the systematic use of yellow or fluorescent yellow-green backgrounds for pedestrian, bicycle, and school warning signs in a jurisdiction, the yellow or fluorescent yellow-green background for pedestrian, bicycle, and school warning signs may be used in TTC zones.
07 Standard orange flags or flashing warning lights may be used in conjunction with signs.
Standard:
08 When standard orange flags or flashing warning lights are used in conjunction with signs, they shall not block the sign face.
09 (DE Revision) Except as provided in Section 2A.11, the sizes for TTC signs and plaques shall be as shown in Table 6F-1. The sizes in the minimum column shall only be used on local streets or roadways where the 85th-percentile speed of posted speed limit is less than 35 mph with DelDOT Traffic approval for state-maintained roads.
Option:
10 The dimensions of signs and plaques shown in Table 6F-1 may be increased wherever necessary for greater legibility or emphasis.
Standard:
11 (DE Revision) Paragraph deleted.
Support:
12 Sign design details are contained in the “Standard Highway Signs and Markings” book (see Section 1A.11).
13 Section 2A.06 contains additional information regarding the design of signs, including an Option allowing the development of special word message signs if a standard word message or symbol sign is not available to convey the necessary regulatory, warning, or guidance information.
Standard:
14 All signs used at night shall be either retroreflective with a material that has a smooth, sealed outer surface or illuminated to show the same shape and similar color both day and night.
15 The requirement for sign illumination shall not be considered to be satisfied by street, highway, or strobe lighting.
Option:
16 Sign illumination may be either internal or external.
17 Signs may be made of rigid or flexible material.
Standard:
18 (DE Revision) All TTC signs, including those made of flexible material (i.e. roll-up signs), shall be made of prismatic retroreflective sign sheeting.
19 (DE Revision) Flexible signs made of mesh material shall not be used for TTC operations within the State of Delaware.
Guidance:
20 (DE Revision) The backs of all signs should be clearly marked with the owner’s name and contact information.
Section 6F.03 Sign Placement
Guidance:
01 Signs should be located on the right-hand side of the roadway unless otherwise provided in this Manual.
02 (DE Revision) Typically, on multi-lane divided highways, signs should be placed on both the left-hand and right-hand sides of the roadway.
 
Option:
02 Where special emphasis is needed, signs may be placed on both the left-hand and right-hand sides of the roadway. Signs mounted on portable supports may be placed within the roadway itself. Signs may also be mounted on or above barricades.
Support:
03 The provisions of this Section regarding mounting height apply unless otherwise provided for a particular sign elsewhere in this Manual.
Standard:
04 (DE Revision) The minimum height, measured vertically from the bottom of the sign to the elevation of the near edge of the pavement, of signs installed at the side of the road in rural areas shall be 7 feet (see Figure 6F-1).
05 The minimum height, measured vertically from the bottom of the sign to the top of the curb, or in the absence of curb, measured vertically from the bottom of the sign to the elevation of the near edge of the traveled way, of signs installed at the side of the road in business, commercial, or residential areas where parking or pedestrian movements are likely to occur, or where the view of the sign might be obstructed, shall be 7 feet (see Figure 6F-1).
06 The minimum height, measured vertically from the bottom of the sign to the sidewalk, of signs installed above sidewalks shall be 7 feet.
Option:
06A (DE Revision) When signs are mounted on portable sign supports, the minimum mounting heights may be reduced from 7 feet to either 5 feet or 1 foot depending on the duration of use provided in Paragraphs 8A through 8C.
07 The height to the bottom of a secondary sign mounted below another sign may be 1 foot less than the height provided in Paragraphs 4 through 6.
Guidance:
08 Neither portable nor permanent sign supports should be located on sidewalks, bicycle facilities, or areas designated for pedestrian or bicycle traffic. If the bottom of a secondary sign that is mounted below another sign is mounted lower than 7 feet above a pedestrian sidewalk or pathway (see Section 6D.02), the secondary sign should not project more than 4 inches into the pedestrian facility.
08A (DE Revision) Except as provided in Paragraph 8C, signs mounted on portable sign supports with a minimum mounting height of 5 feet should not be used for a duration of longer than 3 days.
08B (DE Revision) Except as provided in Paragraph 8C, signs mounted on portable sign supports with a minimum mounting height of 1 foot will only be permitted upon approval from DelDOT Traffic.
Option:
08C (DE Revision) The R9-8 through R9-11a series, R11 series, W1-6 through W1-8 series, M4-10, E5-1, or other similar type signs (see Figures 6F-3, 6F-4, and 6F-5) may be used on portable sign supports that do not meet the minimum mounting heights provided in Paragraphs 4 through 6 for longer than 3 days.
Standard:
08D (DE Revision) Sign supports shall be crashworthy. Where large signs having an area exceeding 50 square feet are installed on multiple breakaway posts, the clearance from the ground to the bottom of the sign shall be at least 7 feet.
Standard:
09 Where it has been determined that the accommodation of pedestrians with disabilities is necessary, signs shall be mounted and placed in accordance with Section 4.4 of the “Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities (ADAAG)” (see Section 1A.11).
10 Signs mounted on barricades and barricade/sign combinations shall be crashworthy.
Guidance:
11 (DE Revision) Paragraph relocated.
Option:
12 (DE Revision) Paragraph relocated.
Support:
13 Methods of mounting signs other than on posts are illustrated in Figure 6F-2.
Guidance:
14 Signs mounted on Type 3 Barricades should not cover more than 50 percent of the top two rails or 33 percent of the total area of the three rails.
Standard:
15 (DE Revision) Paragraph relocated.
Option:
16 (DE Revision) Paragraph deleted.
17 For mobile operations, a sign may be mounted on a work vehicle, a shadow vehicle, or a trailer stationed in advance of the TTC zone or moving along with it.
 
 
17A (DE Revision) If utility conflicts or concrete sidewalks/medians prevent the installation of permanent signs in the appropriate location, portable sign supports may be used.
Support:
18 If alterations are made to specific traffic control device supports that have been successfully crash tested in accordance with NCHRP Report 350, the altered supports might not be considered to be crashworthy.
Standard:
19 (DE Revision) When portable signs are no longer in use, the signs and their supports shall be removed or placed behind positive protection.
Section 6F.04 Sign Maintenance
Guidance:
01 Signs should be properly maintained for cleanliness, visibility, and correct positioning.
02 Signs that have lost significant legibility should be promptly replaced.
Support:
03 (DE Revision) Section 2A.08 and 6F.01 contain information regarding the retroreflectivity of signs, including the signs that are used in TTC zones.
Section 6F.05 Regulatory Sign Authority
Support:
01 Regulatory signs such as those shown in Figure 6F-3 inform road users of traffic laws or regulations and indicate the applicability of legal requirements that would not otherwise be apparent.
Standard:
02 Regulatory signs shall be authorized by the public agency or official having jurisdiction and shall conform with Chapter 2B.
Guidance:
03 (DE Revision) A Traffic Control Device Authorization should be approved by DelDOT Traffic prior to the installation of a TTC regulatory sign or modification to an existing TTC regulatory sign.
Section 6F.06 Regulatory Sign Design
Standard:
01 TTC regulatory signs shall comply with the Standards for regulatory signs presented in Part 2 and in the FHWA’s “Standard Highway Signs and Markings” book (see Section 1A.11).
Support:
02 Regulatory signs are generally rectangular with a black legend and border on a white background. Exceptions include the STOP, YIELD, DO NOT ENTER, WRONG WAY, and ONE WAY signs.
Option:
03 The ONE WAY sign may be either a horizontal or vertical rectangular sign.
Section 6F.07 Regulatory Sign Applications
Standard:
01 If a TTC zone requires regulatory measures different from those existing, the existing permanent regulatory devices shall be removed or covered and superseded by the appropriate temporary regulatory signs. This change shall be made in compliance with applicable ordinances or statutes of the jurisdiction.
Section 6F.08 ROAD (STREET) CLOSED Sign (R11-2)
Guidance:
01 The ROAD (STREET) CLOSED (R11-2) sign (see Figure 6F-3) should be used when the roadway is closed to all road users except contractors’ equipment or officially authorized vehicles. The R11-2 sign should be accompanied by appropriate warning and detour signing.
 
Option:
02 The words BRIDGE OUT (or BRIDGE CLOSED) may be substituted for ROAD (STREET) CLOSED where applicable.
Guidance:
03 The ROAD (STREET) CLOSED sign should be installed at or near the center of the roadway on or above a Type 3 Barricade that closes the roadway (see Section 6F.68).
Standard:
04 The ROAD (STREET) CLOSED sign shall not be used where road user flow is maintained through the TTC zone with a reduced number of lanes on the existing roadway or where the actual closure is some distance beyond the sign.
Section 6F.09 Local Traffic Only Signs (R11-3a, R11-4)
Guidance:
01 The Local Traffic Only signs (see Figure 6F-3) should be used where road user flow detours to avoid a closure some distance beyond the sign, but where local road users can use the roadway to the point of closure. These signs should be accompanied by appropriate warning and detour signing.
02 In rural applications, the Local Traffic Only sign should have the legend ROAD CLOSED XX MILES AHEAD, LOCAL TRAFFIC ONLY (R11-3a).
Option:
03 In urban areas, the legend ROAD (STREET) CLOSED TO THRU TRAFFIC (R11-4) or ROAD CLOSED, LOCAL TRAFFIC ONLY may be used.
04 In urban areas, a word message that includes the name of an intersecting street name or well-known destination may be substituted for the words XX MILES AHEAD on the R11-3a sign where applicable.
05 The words BRIDGE OUT (or BRIDGE CLOSED) may be substituted for the words ROAD (STREET) CLOSED on the R11-3a or R11-4 sign where applicable.
Section 6F.10 Weight Limit Signs (R12-1, R12-2, R12-5)
Standard:
01 A Weight Limit sign (see Figure 6F-3), which shows the gross weight or axle weight that is permitted on the roadway or bridge, shall be consistent with State or local regulations and shall not be installed without the approval of the authority having jurisdiction over the highway.
02 When weight restrictions are imposed because of the activity in a TTC zone, a marked detour shall be provided for vehicles weighing more than the posted limit.
Section 6F.11 STAY IN LANE Sign (R4-9)
Option:
01 A STAY IN LANE (R4-9) sign (see Figure 6F-3) may be used where a multi-lane shift has been incorporated as part of the TTC on a highway to direct road users around road work that occupies part of the roadway on a multi-lane highway.
Section 6F.12 Work Zone and Higher Fines Signs and Plaques
Option:
01 A WORK ZONE (G20-5aP) plaque (see Figure 6F-3) may be mounted above a Speed Limit sign to emphasize that a reduced speed limit is in effect within a TTC zone. An END WORK ZONE SPEED LIMIT (R2-12) sign (see Figure 6F-3) may be installed at the downstream end of the reduced speed limit zone.
Guidance:
02 A BEGIN HIGHER FINES ZONE (R2-10) sign (see Figure 6F-3) should be installed at the upstream end of a work zone where increased fines are imposed for traffic violations, and an END HIGHER FINES ZONE (R2-11) sign (see Figure 6F-3) should be installed at the downstream end of the work zone.
 
 
Option:
03 Alternate legends such as BEGIN (or END) DOUBLE FINES ZONE may also be used for the R2-10 and R2-11 signs.
04 A FINES HIGHER, FINES DOUBLE, or $XX FINE plaque (see Section 2B.17 and Figure 6F-3) may be mounted below the Speed Limit sign if increased fines are imposed for traffic violations within the TTC zone.
04A (DE Revision) The BEGIN HIGHER FINES ZONE sign and FINES HIGHER plaque may be omitted within TTC zones per §4105 of Title 21 of the Delaware Code.
05 Individual signs and plaques for work zone speed limits and higher fines may be combined into a single sign or may be displayed as an assembly of signs and plaques.
Section 6F.13 PEDESTRIAN CROSSWALK Sign (R9-8)
Option:
01 The PEDESTRIAN CROSSWALK (R9-8) sign (see Figure 6F-3) may be used to indicate where a temporary crosswalk has been established.
Standard:
02 If a temporary crosswalk is established, it shall be accessible to pedestrians with disabilities in accordance with Section 6D.02.
Section 6F.14 SIDEWALK CLOSED Signs (R9-9, R9-10, R9-11, R9-11a)
Guidance:
01 SIDEWALK CLOSED signs (see Figure 6F-3) should be used where pedestrian flow is restricted. Bicycle/Pedestrian Detour (M4-9a) signs or Pedestrian Detour (M4-9b) signs should be used where pedestrian flow is rerouted (see Section 6F.59).
02 The SIDEWALK CLOSED (R9-9) sign should be installed at the beginning of the closed sidewalk, at the intersections preceding the closed sidewalk, and elsewhere along the closed sidewalk as needed.
03 The SIDEWALK CLOSED, (ARROW) USE OTHER SIDE (R9-10) sign should be installed at the beginning of the restricted sidewalk when a parallel sidewalk exists on the other side of the roadway.
04 The SIDEWALK CLOSED AHEAD, (ARROW) CROSS HERE (R9-11) sign should be used to indicate to pedestrians that sidewalks beyond the sign are closed and to direct them to open crosswalks, sidewalks, or other travel paths.
05 The SIDEWALK CLOSED, (ARROW) CROSS HERE (R9-11a) sign should be installed just beyond the point to which pedestrians are being redirected.
Support:
06 These signs are typically mounted on a detectable barricade to encourage compliance and to communicate with pedestrians that the sidewalk is closed. Printed signs are not useful to many pedestrians with visual disabilities. A barrier or barricade detectable by a person with a visual disability is sufficient to indicate that a sidewalk is closed. If the barrier is continuous with detectable channelizing devices for an alternate route, accessible signing might not be necessary. An audible information device is needed when the detectable barricade or barrier for an alternate channelized route is not continuous.
Section 6F.15 Special Regulatory Signs
Option:
01 (DE Revision) Special regulatory signs, such as a TAKE YOUR TURN (R1-10P-DE) sign (see Figure 6F-3), may be used based on engineering judgment consistent with regulatory requirements.
Guidance:
02 Special regulatory signs should comply with the general requirements of color, shape, and alphabet size and series. The sign message should be brief, legible, and clear.
Section 6F.16 Warning Sign Function, Design, and Application
Support:
01 TTC zone warning signs (see Figure 6F-4) notify road users of specific situations or conditions on or adjacent to a roadway that might not otherwise be apparent.
Standard:
02 (DE Revision) TTC warning signs shall comply with the Standards for warning signs presented in Part 2 and in FHWA’s “Standard Highway Signs and Markings” book (see Section 1A.11). Except as provided in Paragraph 3, TTC warning signs shall be diamond-shaped with a black legend and border on an fluorescent orange background, except for the W10-1 sign which shall have a black legend and border on a yellow background, and except for signs that are required or recommended in Parts 2 or 7 to have fluorescent yellow-green backgrounds.
Option:
03 Warning signs used for TTC incident management situations may have a black legend and border on a fluorescent pink background.
04 Mounting or space considerations may justify a change from the standard diamond shape.
05 In emergencies, available warning signs having yellow backgrounds may be used if signs with orange or fluorescent pink backgrounds are not at hand.
Guidance:
06 Where roadway or road user conditions require greater emphasis, larger than standard size warning signs should be used, with the symbol or legend enlarged approximately in proportion to the outside dimensions.
07 Where any part of the roadway is obstructed or closed by work activities or incidents, advance warning signs should be installed to alert road users well in advance of these obstructions or restrictions.
08 Where road users include pedestrians, the provision of supplemental audible information or detectable barriers or barricades should be considered for people with visual disabilities.
Support:
09 Detectable barriers or barricades communicate very clearly to pedestrians who have visual disabilities that they can no longer proceed in the direction that they are traveling.
Option:
10 Advance warning signs may be used singly or in combination.
11 Where distances are not displayed on warning signs as part of the message, a supplemental plaque with the distance legend may be mounted immediately below the sign on the same support.
Section 6F.17 Position of Advance Warning Signs
Guidance:
01 Where highway conditions permit, warning signs should be placed in advance of the TTC zone at varying distances depending on roadway type, condition, and posted speed. Table 6C-1 contains information regarding the spacing of advance warning signs. Where a series of two or more advance warning signs is used, the closest sign to the TTC zone should be placed approximately 100 feet for low-speed urban streets to 1,000 feet or more for freeways and expressways.
02 Where multiple advance warning signs are needed on the approach to a TTC zone, the ROAD WORK AHEAD (W20-1) sign should be the first advance warning sign encountered by road users.
02A (DE Revision) Signs erected for individual operations within the TTC zone limits of a construction project should be placed with appropriate spacing and should not conflict with advance warning signs that are to remain for the entire duration of the project.
Support:
03 Various conditions, such as limited sight distance or obstructions that might require a driver to reduce speed or stop, might require additional advance warning signs.
Option:
04 As an alternative to a specific distance on advance warning signs, the word AHEAD may be used.
Support:
05 At TTC zones on lightly-traveled roads, all of the advance warning signs prescribed for major construction might not be needed.
Option:
06 Utility work, maintenance, or minor construction can occur within the TTC zone limits of a major construction project, and additional warning signs may be needed.
Guidance:
07 Utility, maintenance, and minor construction signing and TTC should be coordinated with appropriate authorities so that road users are not confused or misled by the additional TTC devices.
Section 6F.18 ROAD (STREET) WORK Sign (W20-1)
Guidance:
01 The ROAD (STREET) WORK (W20-1) sign (see Figure 6F-4), which serves as a general warning of obstructions or restrictions, should be located in advance of the work space or any detour, on the road where the work is taking place.
02 Where traffic can enter a TTC zone from a crossroad or a major (high-volume) driveway, an advance warning sign should be used on the crossroad or major driveway.
Standard:
03 The ROAD (STREET) WORK (W20-1) sign shall have the legend ROAD (STREET) WORK, XX FEET, XX MILES, or AHEAD.
Section 6F.19 DETOUR Sign (W20-2)
Guidance:
01 The DETOUR (W20-2) sign (see Figure 6F-4) should be used in advance of a road user detour over a different roadway or route.
Standard:
02 The DETOUR sign shall have the legend DETOUR, XX FEET, XX MILES, or AHEAD.
Section 6F.20 ROAD (STREET) CLOSED Sign (W20-3)
Guidance:
01 The ROAD (STREET) CLOSED (W20-3) sign (see Figure 6F-4) should be used in advance of the point where a highway is closed to all road users, or to all but local road users.
Standard:
02 The ROAD (STREET) CLOSED sign shall have the legend ROAD (STREET) CLOSED, XX FEET, XX MILES, or AHEAD.
Section 6F.21 ONE LANE ROAD Sign (W20-4)
Standard:
01 The ONE LANE ROAD (W20-4) sign (see Figure 6F-4) shall be used only in advance of that point where motor vehicle traffic in both directions must use a common single lane (see Section 6C.10). It shall have the legend ONE LANE ROAD, XX FEET, XX MILES, or AHEAD.
Section 6F.22 Lane(s) Closed Signs (W20-5, W20-5a)
Standard:
01 The Lane(s) Closed sign (see Figure 6F-4) shall be used in advance of that point where one or more through lanes of a multi-lane roadway are closed.
02 For a single lane closure, the Lane Closed (W20-5) sign (see Figure 6F-4) shall have the legend RIGHT (LEFT) LANE CLOSED, XX FEET, XX MILES, or AHEAD. Where two adjacent lanes are closed, the W20-5a sign (see Figure 6F-4) shall have the legend XX RIGHT (LEFT) LANES CLOSED, XX FEET, XX MILES, or AHEAD.
Section 6F.23 CENTER LANE CLOSED AHEAD Sign (W9-3)
Guidance:
01 The CENTER LANE CLOSED AHEAD (W9-3) sign (see Figure 6F-4) should be used in advance of that point where work occupies the center lane(s) and approaching motor vehicle traffic is directed to the right or left of the work zone in the center lane.
Section 6F.24 Lane Ends Sign (W4-2) and MERGE (LEFT or RIGHT) Sign (W4-2-DE)
Option:
01 (DE Revision) The Lane Ends (W4-2) symbol sign or MERGE (LEFT or RIGHT) (W4-2-DE) sign (see Figure 6F-4) may be used to warn drivers of the reduction in the number of lanes for moving motor vehicle traffic in the direction of travel on a multi-lane roadway.
Section 6F.25 ON RAMP Plaque (W13-4P)
Guidance:
01 When work is being done on a ramp, but the ramp remains open, the ON RAMP (W13-4P) plaque (see Figure 6F-4) should be used to supplement the advance ROAD WORK sign.
Section 6F.26 RAMP NARROWS Sign (W5-4)
Guidance:
01 The RAMP NARROWS (W5-4) sign (see Figure 6F-4) should be used in advance of the point where work on a ramp reduces the normal width of the ramp along a part or all of the ramp.
Section 6F.27 SLOW TRAFFIC AHEAD Sign (W23-1)
Option:
01 The SLOW TRAFFIC AHEAD (W23-1) sign (see Figure 6F-4) may be used on a shadow vehicle, usually mounted on the rear of the most upstream shadow vehicle, along with other appropriate signs for mobile operations to warn of slow moving work vehicles. A ROAD WORK (W20-1) sign may also be used with the SLOW TRAFFIC AHEAD sign.
Section 6F.28 EXIT OPEN and EXIT CLOSED Signs (E5-2, E5-2a)
Option:
01 An EXIT OPEN (E5-2) or EXIT CLOSED (E5-2a) sign (see Figure 6F-5) may be used to supplement other warning signs where work is being conducted in the vicinity of an exit ramp and where the exit maneuver for vehicular traffic using the ramp is different from the normal condition.
Guidance:
02 When an exit ramp is closed, an EXIT CLOSED sign panel with a black legend and border on an orange background should be placed diagonally across the interchange/intersection guide signs.
Section 6F.29 EXIT ONLY Sign (E5-3)
Option:
01 An EXIT ONLY (E5-3) sign (see Figure 6F-5) may be used to supplement other warning signs where work is being conducted in the vicinity of an exit ramp and where the exit maneuver for vehicular traffic using the ramp is different from the normal condition.
Section 6F.30 NEW TRAFFIC PATTERN Sign (W23-2P-DE)
Option:
01 (DE Revision) A NEW TRAFFIC PATTERN (W23-2P-DE) sign (see Figure 6F-4) may be used on the approach to an intersection or along a section of roadway to provide advance warning of a change in traffic patterns, such as revised lane usage, roadway geometry, or signal phasing.
 
 
Guidance:
02 (DE Revision) The NEW TRAFFIC PATTERN (W23-2P-DE) plaque (see Section 2C.62 and Figure 2C-12) should be used along state-maintained roadways to provide advance warning of a change in a traffic pattern. If used, the NEW TRAFFIC PATTERN plaque should be mounted below a warning or regulatory sign and should be removed when the traffic pattern returns to normal, when the changed pattern is no longer considered to be new, or within six months.
Section 6F.31 Flagger Signs (W20-7, W20-7-DE, W20-7a)
Guidance:
01 (DE Revision) The Flagger (W20-7) symbol sign or FLAGGER AHEAD (W20-7-DE) sign (see Figure 6F-4) should be used in advance of any point where a flagger is stationed to control road users.
Option:
02 A distance legend may be displayed on a supplemental plaque below the Flagger sign. The sign may be used with appropriate legends or in conjunction with other warning signs, such as the BE PREPARED TO STOP (W3-4) sign (see Figure 6F-4).
03 The FLAGGER (W20-7a) word message sign with distance legends may be substituted for the Flagger (W20-7) symbol sign.
Section 6F.32 Two-Way Traffic Sign (W6-3)
Guidance:
01 When one roadway of a normally divided highway is closed, with two-way vehicular traffic maintained on the other roadway, the Two-Way Traffic (W6-3) sign (see Figure 6F-4) should be used at the beginning of the two-way vehicular traffic section and at intervals to remind road users of opposing vehicular traffic.
Section 6F.33 Workers Signs (W21-1, W21-1a)
Option:
01 A Workers (W21-1) symbol sign (see Figure 6F-4) may be used to alert road users of workers in or near the roadway.
Guidance:
02 In the absence of other warning devices, a Workers symbol sign should be used when workers are in the roadway.
Option:
03 The WORKERS (W21-1a) word message sign may be used as an alternate to the Workers (W21-1) symbol sign.
Section 6F.34 FRESH OIL (TAR) Sign (W21-2)
Guidance:
01 The FRESH OIL (TAR) (W21-2) sign (see Figure 6F-4) should be used to warn road users of the surface treatment.
Section 6F.35 ROAD MACHINERY AHEAD Sign (W21-3)
Option:
01 The ROAD MACHINERY AHEAD (W21-3) sign (see Figure 6F-4) may be used to warn of machinery operating in or adjacent to the roadway.
Section 6F.36 Motorized Traffic Signs (W8-6, W11-10)
Option:
01 Motorized Traffic (W8-6, W11-10) signs may be used to alert road users to locations where unexpected travel on the roadway or entries into or departures from the roadway by construction vehicles might occur. The TRUCK CROSSING (W8-6) word message sign may be used as an alternate to the Truck Crossing (W11-10) symbol sign (see Figure 6F-4) where there is an established construction vehicle crossing of the roadway.
Support:
02 These locations might be relatively confined or might occur randomly over a segment of roadway.
Section 6F.37 Shoulder Work Signs (W21-5, W21-5a, W21-5b)
Support:
01 Shoulder Work signs (see Figure 6F-4) warn of maintenance, reconstruction, or utility operations on the highway shoulder where the roadway is unobstructed.
Standard:
02 The Shoulder Work sign shall have the legend SHOULDER WORK (W21-5), RIGHT (LEFT) SHOULDER CLOSED (W21-5a), or RIGHT (LEFT) SHOULDER CLOSED XX FT or AHEAD (W21-5b).
Option:
03 The Shoulder Work sign may be used in advance of the point on a non-limited access highway where there is shoulder work. It may be used singly or in combination with a ROAD WORK NEXT XX MILES or ROAD WORK AHEAD sign.
Guidance:
04 On freeways and expressways, the RIGHT (LEFT) SHOULDER CLOSED XX FT or AHEAD (W21-5b) sign followed by RIGHT (LEFT) SHOULDER CLOSED (W21-5a) sign should be used in advance of the point where the shoulder work occurs and should be preceded by a ROAD WORK AHEAD sign.
Section 6F.38 SURVEY CREW Sign (W21-6)
Guidance:
01 The SURVEY CREW (W21-6) sign (see Figure 6F-4) should be used to warn of surveying crews working in or adjacent to the roadway.
Section 6F.39 UTILITY WORK Sign (W21-7)
Option:
01 The UTILITY WORK (W21-7) sign (see Figure 6F-4) may be used as an alternate to the ROAD (STREET) WORK (W20-1) sign for utility operations on or adjacent to a highway.
Support:
02 Typical examples of where the UTILITY WORK sign is used appear in Figures 6H-4, 6H-6, 6H-10, 6H-15, 6H-18, 6H-21, 6H-22, 6H-26, and 6H-33.
Standard:
03 The UTILITY WORK sign shall carry the legend UTILITY WORK, XX FEET, XX MILES, or AHEAD.
Section 6F.40 Signs for Blasting Areas
Support:
01 Radio-Frequency (RF) energy can cause the premature firing of electric detonators (blasting caps) used in TTC zones.
Standard:
02 Road users shall be warned to turn off mobile radio transmitters and cellular telephones where blasting operations occur. A sequence of signs shall be prominently displayed to direct operators of mobile radio equipment, including cellular telephones, to turn off transmitters in a blasting area. These signs shall be covered or removed when there are no explosives in the area or the area is otherwise secured.
Section 6F.41 BLASTING ZONE AHEAD Sign (W22-1)
Standard:
01 The BLASTING ZONE AHEAD (W22-1) sign (see Figure 6F-4) shall be used in advance of any TTC zone where explosives are being used. The TURN OFF 2-WAY RADIO AND CELL PHONE and END BLASTING ZONE signs shall be used in sequence with this sign.
Section 6F.42 TURN OFF 2-WAY RADIO AND CELL PHONE Sign (W22-2)
Standard:
01 The TURN OFF 2-WAY RADIO AND CELL PHONE (W22-2) sign (see Figure 6F-4) shall follow the BLASTING ZONE AHEAD sign and shall be placed at least 1,000 feet before the beginning of the blasting zone.
Section 6F.43 END BLASTING ZONE Sign (W22-3)
Standard:
01 The END BLASTING ZONE (W22-3) sign (see Figure 6F-4) shall be placed a minimum of 1,000 feet past the blasting zone.
Option:
02 The END BLASTING ZONE sign may be placed either with or preceding the END ROAD WORK sign.
Section 6F.44 Shoulder Signs and Plaque (W8-4, W8-9, W8-17, and W8-17P)
Option:
01 The SOFT SHOULDER (W8-4) sign (see Figure 6F-4) may be used to warn of a soft shoulder condition.
Standard:
02 (DE Revision) The LOW SHOULDER (W8-9) and Shoulder Drop Off (W8-17) signs (see Figure 6F-4) shall be used in accordance with Table 6G-1.
Guidance:
03 (DE Revision) Paragraph deleted.
Option:
04 A SHOULDER DROP-OFF (W8-17P) supplemental plaque (see Figure 6F-4) may be mounted below the W8-17 sign.
Section 6F.45 UNEVEN LANES Sign (W8-11)
Standard:
01 (DE Revision) The UNEVEN LANES (W8-11) sign (see Figure 6F-4) shall be used in accordance with Table 6G-1.
Section 6F.46 STEEL PLATE AHEAD Sign (W8-24)
Option:
01 A STEEL PLATE AHEAD (W8-24) sign (see Figure 6F-4) may be used to warn road users that the presence of a temporary steel plate(s) might make the road surface uneven and might create slippery conditions during wet weather.
Section 6F.47 NO CENTER LINE Sign (W8-12)
Guidance:
01 (DE Revision) The NO CENTER LINE (W8-12) sign (see Figure 6F-4) should be used when the work obliterates the center line pavement markings. This sign should be placed at the beginning of the TTC zone, at every major entry point to the TTC zone, and repeated at 2-mile intervals in long TTC zones.
Option:
01A (DE Revision) The NO CENTER LINE sign may be placed at shorter than 2-mile intervals in TTC zones.
Support:
02 Section 6F.78 contains information regarding temporary markings.
Section 6F.48 Reverse Curve Signs (W1-4 Series)
Guidance:
01 (DE Revision) In order to give road users advance notice of a lane shift, a Reverse Curve (W1-4, W1-4b, or W1-4c) sign or LANE SHIFT XX FT (W1-4-DE) sign (see Figure 6F-4) should be used when a lane (or lanes) is being shifted to the left or right. If the design speed of the curves is 30 mph or less, a Reverse Turn (W1-3) sign should be used.
Standard:
02 If a Reverse Curve (or Turn) sign is used, the direction of the reverse curve (or turn) shall be appropriately illustrated. Except as provided in Paragraph 3, the number of lanes illustrated on the sign shall be the same as the number of through lanes available to road users.
Option:
03 Where two or more lanes are being shifted, a W1-4 (or W1-3) sign with an ALL LANES (W24-1cP) plaque (see Figure 6F-4) may be used instead of a sign that illustrates the number of lanes.
04 Where more than three lanes are being shifted, the Reverse Curve (or Turn) sign may be rectangular.
Section 6F.49 Double Reverse Curve Signs (W24-1 Series)
Option:
01 The Double Reverse Curve (W24-1, W24-1a, or W24-1b) sign (see Figure 6F-4) may be used where the tangent distance between two reverse curves is less than 600 feet, thus making it difficult for a second Reverse Curve (W1-4 series) sign to be placed between the curves. If the design speed of the curves is 30 mph or less, Double Reverse Turn signs should be used.
Standard:
02 If a Double Reverse Curve (or Turn) sign is used, the direction of the double reverse curve (or turn) shall be appropriately illustrated. Except as provided in Paragraph 3, the number of lanes illustrated on the sign shall be the same as the number of through lanes available to road users.
Option:
03 Where two or more lanes are being shifted, a W24-1 (or Double Reverse Turn sign showing one lane) sign with an ALL LANES (W24-1cP) plaque (see Figure 6F-4) may be used instead of a sign that illustrates the number of lanes.
04 Where more than three lanes are being shifted, the Double Reverse Curve (or Turn) sign may be rectangular.
Section 6F.50 Other Warning Signs
Option:
01 Advance warning signs may be used by themselves or with other advance warning signs.
02 Besides the warning signs specifically related to TTC zones, several other warning signs in Part 2 may apply in TTC zones.
02A (DE Revision) When shoulder or lane closures affect bicycle facilities, the Bicycle Warning (W11-1) sign and Share the Road (W16-1P) plaque may be used to warn of unexpected entries by bicycles into the roadway.
Standard:
03 Except as provided in Section 6F.02, other warning signs that are used in TTC zones shall have black legends and borders on an orange background.
Section 6F.51 Special Warning Signs
Option:
01 Special warning signs may be used based on engineering judgment.
Guidance:
02 Special warning signs should comply with the general requirements of color, shape, and alphabet size and series. The sign message should be brief, legible, and clear.
Section 6F.52 Advisory Speed Plaque (W13-1P)
Option:
01 In combination with a warning sign, an Advisory Speed (W13-1P) plaque (see Figure 6F-4) may be used to indicate a recommended speed through the TTC zone.
Standard:
02 The Advisory Speed plaque shall not be used in conjunction with any sign other than a warning sign, nor shall it be used alone. When used with orange TTC zone signs, this plaque shall have a black legend and border on an orange background. The sign shall be at least 24 x 24 inches in size when used with a sign that is 36 x 36 inches or larger. Except in emergencies, an Advisory Speed plaque shall not be mounted until the recommended speed is determined by the highway agency.
Section 6F.53 Supplementary Distance Plaque (W7-3aP)
Option:
01 In combination with a warning sign, a Supplementary Distance (W7-3aP) plaque (see Figure 6F-4) with the legend NEXT XX MILES may be used to indicate the length of highway over which a work activity is being conducted, or over which a condition exists in the TTC zone.
02 In long TTC zones, Supplementary Distance plaques with the legend NEXT XX MILES may be placed in combination with warning signs at regular intervals within the zone to indicate the remaining length of highway over which the TTC work activity or condition exists.
Standard:
03 The Supplementary Distance plaque with the legend NEXT XX MILES shall not be used in conjunction with any sign other than a warning sign, nor shall it be used alone. When used with orange TTC zone signs, this plaque shall have a black legend and border on an orange background. The sign shall be at least 30 x 24 inches in size when used with a sign that is 36 x 36 inches or larger.
Guidance:
04 When used in TTC zones, the Supplementary Distance plaque with the legend NEXT XX MILES should be placed below the initial warning sign designating that, within the approaching zone, a temporary work activity or condition exists.
Section 6F.54 Motorcycle Plaque (W8-15P)
Option:
01 A Motorcycle (W8-15P) plaque (see Figure 6F-4) may be mounted below a LOOSE GRAVEL (W8-7) sign, a GROOVED PAVEMENT (W8-15) sign, a METAL BRIDGE DECK (W8-16) sign, or a STEEL PLATE AHEAD (W8-24) sign if the warning is intended to be directed primarily to motorcyclists.
Section 6F.55 Guide Signs
Support:
01 Guide signs along highways provide road users with information to help them along their way through the TTC zone. The design of guide signs is presented in Part 2.
Guidance:
02 The following guide signs should be used in TTC zones as needed:
A. Standard route markings, where temporary route changes are necessary,
B. Directional signs and street name signs, and
C. Special guide signs relating to the condition or work being done.
Standard:
03 If additional temporary guide signs are used in TTC zones, they shall have a black legend and border on an orange background.
Option:
04 Guide signs used in TTC incident management situations may have a black legend and border on a fluorescent pink background.
05 When directional signs and street name signs are used in conjunction with detour routing, these signs may have a black legend and border on an orange background.
06 When permanent directional signs or permanent street name signs are used in conjunction with detour signing, they may have a white legend on a green background.
Section 6F.56 ROAD WORK NEXT XX MILES Sign (G20-1)
Guidance:
01 The ROAD WORK NEXT XX MILES (G20-1) sign (see Figure 6F-4) should be installed in advance of TTC zones that are more than 2 miles in length.
Option:
02 The ROAD WORK NEXT XX MILES sign may be mounted on a Type 3 Barricade. The sign may also be used for TTC zones of shorter length.
Standard:
03 The distance displayed on the ROAD WORK NEXT XX MILES sign shall be stated to the nearest whole mile.
Section 6F.57 END ROAD WORK Sign (G20-2)
Guidance:
01 When used, the END ROAD WORK (G20-2) sign (see Figure 6F-4) should be placed near the downstream end of the termination area, as determined by engineering judgment.
Option:
02 The END ROAD WORK sign may be installed on the back of a warning sign facing the opposite direction of road users or on the back of a Type 3 Barricade.
Section 6F.58 PILOT CAR FOLLOW ME Sign (G20-4)
Standard:
01 The PILOT CAR FOLLOW ME (G20-4) sign (see Figure 6F-4) shall be mounted in a conspicuous position on the rear of a vehicle used for guiding one-way vehicular traffic through or around a TTC zone (see Section 6C.13).
Section 6F.59 Detour Signs (M4-8, M4-8a, M4-8b, M4-9, M4-9-DE, M4-9a, M4-9b, M4-9c, and M4-10)
Standard:
01 Each detour shall be adequately marked with standard temporary route signs and destination signs.
Option:
02 Detour signs in TTC incident management situations may have a black legend and border on a fluorescent pink background.
03 (DE Revision) The Detour Arrow (M4-10) or DETOUR Through Arrow (M4-9-DE) sign (see Figure 6F-5) may be used where a detour route has been established.
04 The DETOUR (M4-8) sign (see Figure 6F-5) may be mounted at the top of a route sign assembly to mark a temporary route that detours from a highway, bypasses a section closed by a TTC zone, and rejoins the highway beyond the TTC zone.
04A (DE Revision) Special detour signs (see Figure 6H-20) may be used on roadways that intersect closed roadways to advise motorists of a corresponding detour.
Guidance:
04B (DE Revision) Special detour sign legends should have a minimum letter height of 6 inches on two-lane roadways and multi-lane roadways with a posted speed limit or 85th-percentile speed less than or equal to 40 miles per hour. Special detour sign legends should have a minimum letter height of 8 inches on multi-lane roadways with a posted speed limit or 85th-percentile speed greater than 40 miles per hour.
Guidance:
05 The Detour Arrow (M4-10) sign should normally be mounted just below the ROAD CLOSED (R11-2, R11-3a, or R11-4) sign. The Detour Arrow sign should include a horizontal arrow pointed to the right or left as required.
06 The DETOUR (M4-9) sign (see Figure 6F-5) should be used for unnumbered highways, for emergency situations, for periods of short durations, or where, over relatively short distances, road users are guided along the detour and back to the desired highway without route signs.
07 A Street Name sign should be placed above, or the street name should be incorporated into, a DETOUR (M4-9) sign to indicate the name of the street being detoured.
Option:
08 The END DETOUR (M4-8a) or END (M4-8b) sign (see Figure 6F-5) may be used to indicate that the detour has ended.
Guidance:
09 When the END DETOUR sign is used on a numbered highway, the sign should be mounted above a route sign after the downstream end of the detour.
10 The Pedestrian/Bicycle Detour (M4-9a) sign (see Figure 6F-5) should be used where a pedestrian/bicycle detour route has been established because of the closing of a pedestrian/bicycle facility to through traffic.
 
Standard:
11 If used, the Pedestrian/Bicycle Detour sign shall have an arrow pointing in the appropriate direction.
Option:
12 The arrow on a Pedestrian/Bicycle Detour sign may be on the sign face or on a supplemental plaque.
13 The Pedestrian Detour (M4-9b) sign or Bicycle Detour (M4-9c) sign (see Figure 6F-5) may be used where a pedestrian or bicycle detour route (not both) has been established because of the closing of the pedestrian or bicycle facility to through traffic.
Section 6F.60 Portable Changeable Message Signs
Support:
01 Portable changeable message signs (PCMS) are TTC devices installed for temporary use with the flexibility to display a variety of messages. In most cases, portable changeable message signs follow the same provisions for design and application as those given for changeable message signs in Chapter 2L. The information in this Section describes situations where the provisions for portable changeable message signs differ from those given in Chapter 2L.
02 Portable changeable message signs are used most frequently on high-density urban freeways, but have applications on all types of highways where highway alignment, road user routing problems, or other pertinent conditions require advance warning and information.
03 Portable changeable message signs have a wide variety of applications in TTC zones including: roadway, lane, or ramp closures; incident management; width restriction information; speed control or reductions; advisories on work scheduling; road user management and diversion; warning of adverse conditions or special events; and other operational control.
04 The primary purpose of portable changeable message signs in TTC zones is to advise the road user of unexpected situations. Portable changeable message signs are particularly useful as they are capable of:
A. Conveying complex messages,
B. Displaying real time information about conditions ahead, and
C. Providing information to assist road users in making decisions prior to the point where actions must be taken.
05 Some typical applications include the following:
A. Where the speed of vehicular traffic is expected to drop substantially;
B. Where significant queuing and delays are expected;
C. Where adverse environmental conditions are present;
D. Where there are changes in alignment or surface conditions;
E. Where advance notice of ramp, lane, or roadway closures is needed;
F. Where crash or incident management is needed; and/or
G. Where changes in the road user pattern occur.
Guidance:
06 The components of a portable changeable message sign should include: a message sign, control systems, a power source, and mounting and transporting equipment. The front face of the sign should be covered with a protective material.
Standard:
07 Portable changeable message signs shall comply with the applicable design and application principles established in Chapter 2A. Portable changeable message signs shall display only traffic operational, regulatory, warning, and guidance information, and shall not be used for advertising messages.
07A (DE Revision) All portable changeable message signs to be placed within State Right of Way and the messages they display shall be approved by DelDOT Traffic prior to installation, except those used for emergency operations.
Support:
07B (DE Revision) The Portable Changeable Message Sign Approval Form can be found on the DelDOT website at www.deldot.gov.
08 Section 2L.02 contains information regarding overly simplistic or vague messages that is also applicable to portable changeable message signs.
Standard:
09 The colors used for legends on portable changeable message signs shall comply with those shown in Table 2A-5.
Support:
10 Section 2L.04 contains information regarding the luminance, luminance contrast, and contrast orientation that is also applicable to portable changeable message signs.
Guidance:
11 Portable changeable message signs should be visible from 1/2 mile under both day and night conditions.
Support:
12 Section 2B.13 contains information regarding the design of portable changeable message signs that are used to display speed limits that change based on operational conditions, or are used to display the speed at which approaching drivers are traveling.
Guidance:
13 A portable changeable message sign should be limited to three lines of eight characters per line or should consist of a full matrix display.
14 Except as provided in Paragraph 15, the letter height used for portable changeable message sign messages should be a minimum of 18 inches.
Option:
15 For portable changeable message signs mounted on service patrol trucks or other incident response vehicles, a letter height as short as 10 inches may be used. Shorter letter sizes may also be used on a portable changeable message sign used on low speed facilities provided that the message is legible from at least 650 feet.
16 The portable changeable message sign may vary in size.
Guidance:
17 Messages on a portable changeable message sign should consist of no more than two phases, and a phase should consist of no more than three lines of text. Each phase should be capable of being understood by itself, regardless of the order in which it is read. Messages should be centered within each line of legend. If more than one portable changeable message sign is simultaneously legible to road users, then only one of the signs should display a sequential message at any given time.
Support:
18 Road users have difficulties in reading messages displayed in more than two phases on a typical three-line portable changeable message sign.
Standard:
19 Techniques of message display such as animation, rapid flashing, dissolving, exploding, scrolling, travelling horizontally or vertically across the face of the sign, or other dynamic elements shall not be used.
Guidance:
20 When a message is divided into two phases, the display time for each phase should be at least 2 seconds, and the sum of the display times for both of the phases should be a maximum of 8 seconds.
21 All messages should be designed with consideration given to the principles provided in this Section and also taking into account the following:
A. The message should be as brief as possible and should contain three thoughts (with each thought preferably shown on its own line) that convey:
1. The problem or situation that the road user will encounter ahead,
2. The location of or distance to the problem or situation, and
3. The recommended driver action.
B. If more than two phases are needed to display a message, additional portable changeable message signs should be used. When multiple portable changeable message signs are needed, they should be placed on the same side of the roadway and they should be separated from each other by a distance of at least 1,000 feet on freeways and expressways, and by a distance of at least 500 feet on other types of highways.
Standard:
22 When the word messages shown in Tables 1A-1 or 1A-2 need to be abbreviated on a portable changeable message sign, the provisions described in Section 1A.15 shall be followed.
23 In order to maintain legibility, portable changeable message signs shall automatically adjust their brightness under varying light conditions.
24 The control system shall include a display screen upon which messages can be reviewed before being displayed on the message sign. The control system shall be capable of maintaining memory when power is unavailable.
25 Portable changeable message signs shall be equipped with a power source and a battery back-up to provide continuous operation when failure of the primary power source occurs.
26 The mounting of portable changeable message signs on a trailer, a large truck, or a service patrol truck shall be such that the bottom of the message sign shall be a minimum of 7 feet above the roadway in urban areas and 5 feet above the roadway in rural areas when it is in the operating mode.
Guidance:
27 Portable changeable message signs should be used as a supplement to and not as a substitute for conventional signs and pavement markings.
28 When portable changeable message signs are used for route diversion, they should be placed far enough in advance of the diversion to allow road users ample opportunity to perform necessary lane changes, to adjust their speed, or to exit the affected highway.
29 Portable changeable message signs should be sited and aligned to provide maximum legibility and to allow time for road users to respond appropriately to the portable changeable Message sign message.
30 (DE Revision) Portable changeable message signs should be placed off the shoulder of the roadway and behind a traffic barrier, if practical. Where a traffic barrier is not available to shield the portable changeable message sign, it should be placed off the shoulder and outside of the clear zone.
Standard:
30A (DE Revision) If a portable changeable message sign is placed on the shoulder of the roadway or within the clear zone, it shall be delineated with retroreflective TTC devices.
30B (DE Revision) Six (6) channelizing devices (drums or cones) shall be provided to close the shoulder in advance of each portable changeable message sign located within the shoulder during the daytime. When a portable changeable message sign will be on site at night, drums shall be utilized.
Guidance:
30C (DE Revision) If a portable changeable message sign is placed on the median of a divided roadway and is less than 30 feet from either direction of travel, the portable changeable message sign should be delineated with 6 drums in that direction of travel.
31 When portable changeable message signs are used in TTC zones, they should display only TTC messages.
32 (DE Revision) Portable changeable message signs should be located, to the extent possible, outside of the clear zone or shielded behind a traffic barrier.
Standard:
32A (DE Revision) When portable changeable message signs are not being used to display TTC messages and if relocation or shielding is not practical, portable changeable message signs shall be delineated with a minimum of 6 drums.
32B (DE Revision) All portable changeable message signs no longer in use shall be removed from the work area within 48 hours, unless approved by DelDOT Traffic.
Guidance:
33 Portable changeable message sign trailers should be delineated on a permanent basis by affixing retroreflective material, known as conspicuity material, in a continuous line on the face of the trailer as seen by oncoming road users.
Section 6F.61 Arrow Boards
Standard:
01 An arrow board shall be a sign with a matrix of elements capable of either flashing or sequential displays. This sign shall provide additional warning and directional information to assist in merging and controlling road users through or around a TTC zone.
Guidance:
02 An arrow board in the arrow or chevron mode should be used to advise approaching traffic of a lane closure along major multi-lane roadways in situations involving heavy traffic volumes, high speeds, and/or limited sight distances, or at other locations and under other conditions where road users are less likely to expect such lane closures.
03 If used, an arrow board should be used in combination with appropriate signs, channelizing devices, or other TTC devices.
04 An arrow board should be placed on the shoulder of the roadway or, if practical, farther from the traveled lane. It should be delineated with retroreflective TTC devices. When an arrow board is not being used, it should be removed; if not removed, it should be shielded; or if the previous two options are not feasible, it should be delineated with retroreflective TTC devices.
Standard:
05 Arrow boards shall meet the minimum size, legibility distance, number of elements, and other specifications shown in Figure 6F-6.
Support:
06 Type A arrow boards are appropriate for use on low-speed urban streets. Type B arrow boards are appropriate for intermediate-speed facilities and for maintenance or mobile operations on high-speed roadways. Type C arrow boards are intended to be used on high-speed, high-volume motor vehicle traffic control projects. Type D arrow boards are intended for use on vehicles authorized by the State or local agency.
Standard:
07 Type A, B, and C arrow boards shall have solid rectangular appearances. A Type D arrow board shall conform to the shape of the arrow.
08 All arrow boards shall be finished in non-reflective black. The arrow board shall be mounted on a vehicle, a trailer, or other suitable support.
08A (DE Revision) A One-Direction Large Arrow (W1-6) sign shall be centered below and attached to the bottom of all trailer-mounted arrow boards.
08B (DE Revision) The One-Direction Large Arrow (W1-6) sign shall point in the direction that traffic should merge and shall be covered or removed when not in use or when caution mode is being displayed on the trailer mounted arrow board.
08C (DE Revision) When arrow boards are not in use they shall be removed from the roadway.
Guidance:
09 The minimum mounting height, measured vertically from the bottom of the board to the roadway below it or to the elevation of the near edge of the roadway, of an arrow board should be 7 feet , except on vehicle-mounted arrow boards, which should be as high as practical.
10 A vehicle-mounted arrow board should be provided with remote controls.
Standard:
11 Arrow board elements shall be capable of at least a 50 percent dimming from full brilliance. The dimmed mode shall be used for nighttime operation of arrow boards.
Guidance:
12 Full brilliance should be used for daytime operation of arrow boards.
Standard:
13 The arrow board shall have suitable elements capable of the various operating modes. The color presented by the elements shall be yellow.
Guidance:
14 If an arrow board consisting of a bulb matrix is used, the elements should be recess-mounted or equipped with an upper hood of not less than 180 degrees.
Standard:
15 The minimum element on-time shall be 50 percent for the flashing mode, with equal intervals of 25 percent for each sequential phase. The flashing rate shall be not less than 25 or more than 40 flashes per minute.
16 An arrow board shall have the following three mode selections:
A. A Flashing Arrow, Sequential Arrow, or Sequential Chevron mode;
B. A Flashing Double Arrow mode; and
C. A Flashing Caution or Alternating Diamond mode.
Guidance:
16A (DE Revision) Only the Flashing Arrow or Flashing Caution operating modes should be used on state-maintained roadways.
Standard:
17 An arrow board in the arrow or chevron mode shall be used only for stationary or moving lane closures on multi-lane roadways.
18 For shoulder work, blocking the shoulder, for roadside work near the shoulder, or for temporarily closing one lane on a two-lane, two-way roadway, an arrow board shall be used only in the caution mode.
Guidance:
19 For a stationary lane closure, the arrow board should be located on the shoulder at the beginning of the merging taper.
20 Where the shoulder is narrow, the arrow board should be located in the closed lane.
Standard:
21 When arrow boards are used to close multiple lanes, a separate arrow board shall be used for each closed lane.
Guidance:
22 When arrow boards are used to close multiple lanes, if the first arrow board is placed on the shoulder, the second arrow board should be placed in the first closed lane at the upstream end of the second merging taper (see Figure 6H-37). When the first arrow board is placed in the first closed lane, the second arrow board should be placed in the second closed lane at the downstream end of the second merging taper.
23 For mobile operations where a lane is closed, the arrow board should be located to provide adequate separation from the work operation to allow for appropriate reaction by approaching drivers.
Standard:
24 A vehicle displaying an arrow board shall be equipped with high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights.
25 Arrow boards shall only be used to indicate a lane closure. Arrow boards shall not be used to indicate a lane shift.
Option:
26 A portable changeable message sign may be used to simulate an arrow board display.
Section 6F.62 High-Level Warning Devices (Flag Trees)
Option:
01 A high-level warning device (flag tree) may supplement other TTC devices in TTC zones.
Guidance:
01A (DE Revision) High-level warning devices (flag trees) should not be used on state-maintained roads unless approved by DelDOT Traffic.
Support:
02 A high-level warning device is designed to be seen over the top of typical passenger cars. A typical high-level warning device is shown in Figure 6F-2.
Standard:
03 A high-level warning device shall consist of a minimum of two flags with or without a Type B high-intensity flashing warning light. The distance from the roadway to the bottom of the lens of the light and to the lowest point of the flag material shall be not less than 8 feet. The flag shall be 16 inches square or larger and shall be orange or fluorescent red-orange in color.
Option:
04 An appropriate warning sign may be mounted below the flags.
Support:
05 High-level warning devices are most commonly used in high-density road user situations to warn road users of short-term operations.
Section 6F.63 Channelizing Devices
Standard:
01 (DE Revision) Designs of various channelizing devices shall be as shown in Figure 6F–7. All channelizing devices shall be crashworthy and shall have retroreflective sheeting.
01A (DE Revision) The retroreflective material used on channelizing devices shall have a smooth, sealed outer surface that will display a similar color day or night.
Guidance:
01B (DE Revision) The retroreflective material used on channelizing devices should be prismatic.
Support:
02 The function of channelizing devices is to warn road users of conditions created by work activities in or near the roadway and to guide road users. Channelizing devices include cones, tubular markers, vertical panels, drums, barricades, and longitudinal channelizing devices.
03 Channelizing devices provide for smooth and gradual vehicular traffic flow from one lane to another, onto a bypass or detour, or into a narrower traveled way. They are also used to channelize vehicular traffic away from the work space, pavement drop-offs, pedestrian or shared-use paths, or opposing directions of vehicular traffic.
Standard:
04 Devices used to channelize pedestrians shall be detectable to users of long canes and visible to persons having low vision.
05 Where channelizing devices are used to channelize pedestrians, there shall be continuous detectable bottom and top surfaces to be detectable to users of long canes. The bottom of the bottom surface shall be no higher than 2 inches above the ground. The top of the top surface shall be no lower than 32 inches above the ground.
Option:
06 A gap not exceeding 2 inches between the bottom rail and the ground surface may be used to facilitate drainage.
Guidance:
07 Where multiple channelizing devices are aligned to form a continuous pedestrian channelizer, connection points should be smooth to optimize long-cane and hand trailing.
08 (DE Revision) The spacing between cones, tubular markers, vertical panels, drums, and barricades should not exceed a distance in feet equal to 1.0 times the speed limit in mph and should not exceed 60 feet when used for both taper channelization and tangent channelization.
08A (DE Revision) The spacing of the first four channelizing devices in a series used for taper channelization should not exceed 25 feet.
09 When channelizing devices have the potential of leading vehicular traffic out of the intended vehicular traffic space as shown in Figure 6H-39, the channelizing devices should be extended a distance in feet of 2.0 times the speed limit in mph beyond the downstream end of the transition area.
Option:
10 Warning lights (see Section 6F.83) may be added to channelizing devices in areas with frequent fog, snow, or severe roadway curvature, or where visual distractions are present.
Guidance:
10A (DE Revision) Warning lights with channelizing devices should not be used on state-maintained roads unless approved by DelDOT Traffic.
Standard:
11 Warning lights shall flash when placed on channelizing devices used alone or in a cluster to warn of a condition. Except for the sequential flashing warning lights discussed in Paragraphs 12 and 13, warning lights placed on channelizing devices used in a series to channelize road users shall be steady-burn.
Option:
12 A series of sequential flashing warning lights may be placed on channelizing devices that form a merging taper in order to increase driver detection and recognition of the merging taper.
Standard:
13 When used, the successive flashing of the sequential warning lights shall occur from the upstream end of the merging taper to the downstream end of the merging taper in order to identify the desired vehicle path. Each warning light in the sequence shall be flashed at a rate of not less than 55 nor more than 75 times per minute.
14 (DE Revision) Paragraph relocated.
Option:
15 The name and telephone number of the highway agency, contractor, or supplier may be displayed on the non-retroreflective surface of all types of channelizing devices.
Standard:
16 The letters and numbers of the name and telephone number shall be non-retroreflective and not over 2 inches in height.
Guidance:
17 Particular attention should be given to maintaining the channelizing devices to keep them clean, visible, and properly positioned at all times.
Standard:
18 Devices that are damaged or have lost a significant amount of their retroreflectivity and effectiveness shall be replaced.
Section 6F.64 Cones
Standard:
01 (DE Revision) Cones (see Figure 6F-7) shall be predominantly orange and shall be made of a material that can be struck without causing damage to the impacting vehicle. Cones shall be a minimum of 28 inches in height for all operations.
02 (DE Revision) Except as noted in Paragraphs 3A, 3B and 3C, cones shall not be used for nighttime operations. Retroreflectorization of cones that are 28 to 36 inches in height shall be provided by a 6-inch wide white band located 3 to 4 inches from the top of the cone and an additional 4-inch wide white band located approximately 2 inches below the 6-inch band.
03 Retroreflectorization of cones that are more than 36 inches in height shall be provided by horizontal, circumferential, alternating orange and white retroreflective stripes that are 4 to 6 inches wide. Each cone shall have a minimum of two orange and two white stripes with the top stripe being orange. Any non-retroreflective spaces between the orange and white stripes shall not exceed 3 inches in width.
Option:
03A (DE Revision) Due to the unique and temporary nature of traffic management for special events, including complex traffic shifts to accommodate ingress and egress, retroreflective cones may be used at night during planned special events.
03B (DE Revision) Retroreflective cones may be used in lieu of drums during a single nighttime emergency operation.
03C (DE Revision) Retroreflective cones may be used to supplement a mobile striping operation.
04 Traffic cones may be used to channelize road users, divide opposing vehicular traffic lanes, divide lanes when two or more lanes are kept open in the same direction, and delineate short duration maintenance and utility work.
Guidance:
05 Steps should be taken to minimize the possibility of cones being blown over or displaced by wind or moving vehicular traffic.
Option:
06 Cones may be doubled up to increase their weight.
Support:
07 Some cones are constructed with bases that can be filled with ballast. Others have specially weighted bases, or weight such as sandbag rings that can be dropped over the cones and onto the base to provide added stability.
Guidance:
08 Ballast should be kept to the minimum amount needed.
Section 6F.65 Tubular Markers
Standard:
01 (DE Revision) Tubular markers (see Figure 6F-7) shall be predominantly orange and shall be not less than 28 inches high and 2 inches wide facing road users. They shall be made of a material that can be struck without causing damage to the impacting vehicle.
02 (DE Revision) Paragraph deleted.
03 (DE Revision) Tubular markers shall be retroreflectorized. Retroreflectorization of tubular markers that have a height of less than 42 inches shall be provided by two 3-inch wide white bands placed a maximum of 2 inches from the top with a maximum of 6 inches between the bands. Retroreflectorization of tubular markers that have a height of 42 inches or more shall be provided by four 4- to 6-inch wide alternating orange and white stripes with the top stripe being orange.
Guidance:
04 Tubular markers have less visible area than other devices and should be used only where space restrictions do not allow for the use of other more visible devices.
05 (DE Revision) Tubular markers should be stabilized by affixing them to the pavement with epoxy, nails, or other forms of rigid mounting.
Option:
06 Tubular markers may be used effectively to divide opposing lanes of road users, divide vehicular traffic lanes when two or more lanes of moving vehicular traffic are kept open in the same direction, and to delineate the edge of a pavement drop off where space limitations do not allow the use of larger devices.
Standard:
07 A tubular marker shall be attached to the pavement to display the minimum 2-inch width to the approaching road users.
Section 6F.66 Vertical Panels
Guidance:
01A (DE Revision) Vertical panels (see Figure 6F-7) should not be used on state-maintained roads without DelDOT Traffic approval.
Standard:
01 Vertical panels (see Figure 6F-7) shall have retroreflective striped material that is 8 to 12 inches in width and at least 24 inches in height. They shall have alternating diagonal orange and white retroreflective stripes sloping downward at an angle of 45 degrees in the direction vehicular traffic is to pass.
02 Where the height of the retroreflective material on the vertical panel is 36 inches or more, a stripe width of 6 inches shall be used.
Option:
03 Where the height of the retroreflective material on the vertical panel is less than 36 inches, a stripe width of 4 inches may be used.
04 Where space is limited, vertical panels may be used to channelize vehicular traffic, divide opposing lanes, or replace barricades.
Section 6F.67 Drums
Standard:
01 (DE Revision) Drums (see Figure 6F-7) used for road user warning or channelization shall be constructed of lightweight, deformable materials. They shall be a minimum of 36 inches in height and have at least an 18-inch minimum width regardless of orientation. Metal drums shall not be used. The markings on drums shall be horizontal, circumferential, alternating orange and white retroreflective stripes 4 to 6 inches wide. The horizontal circumferential markings on drums shall be made of fluorescent orange and white prismatic retroreflective sheeting. Each drum shall have a minimum of two orange and two white stripes with the top stripe being orange. Any non-retroreflectorized spaces between the horizontal orange and white stripes shall not exceed 3 inches wide. Drums shall have closed tops that will not allow collection of construction debris or other debris.
Support:
02 Drums are highly visible, have good target value, give the appearance of being formidable obstacles and, therefore, command the respect of road users. They are portable enough to be shifted from place to place within a TTC zone in order to accommodate changing conditions, but are generally used in situations where they will remain in place for a prolonged period of time.
Option:
03 Although drums are most commonly used to channelize or delineate road user flow, they may also be used alone or in groups to mark specific locations.
Guidance:
04 Drums should not be weighted with sand, water, or any material to the extent that would make them hazardous to road users or workers when struck. Drums used in regions susceptible to freezing should have drain holes in the bottom so that water will not accumulate and freeze causing a hazard if struck by a road user.
Standard:
05 Ballast shall not be placed on the top of a drum.
Option:
06 (DE Revision) Two ballast rings (“tire rings”) may be used to minimize drum displacement due to passing vehicles or high winds.
Support:
07 (DE Revision) The use of two ballast rings has been found to minimize the chance a drum could be blown over by a truck or other vehicle passing by at high speed, particularly on roads with posted speed limits of 55 mph or higher, or having the drum blow over due to high winds.
Section 6F.68 Type 1, 2, or 3 Barricades
Standard:
01A (DE Revision) Type 1 Barricades shall not be used for TTC operations on state-maintained roads.
01B (DE Revision) Type 2 Barricades shall only be used for pedestrian channelization along temporary pedestrian paths. Type 2 Barricades shall not be used to close a roadway, sidewalk or crosswalk.
01C (DE Revision) When used for pedestrian channelization, Type 2 Barricades shall be continuous and the rails shall be mounted in accordance with ADA in order to provide for a cane rail (bottom rail) and hand rail (top rail).
Support:
01 A barricade is a portable or fixed device having from one to three rails with appropriate markings and is used to control road users by closing, restricting, or delineating all or a portion of the right-of-way.
02 (DE Revision) An example of a Type 3 barricade is shown in Figure 6F-7.
Standard:
03 Stripes on barricade rails shall be alternating orange and white retroreflective stripes sloping downward at an angle of 45 degrees in the direction road users are to pass. Except as provided in Paragraph 4, the stripes shall be 6 inches wide.
Option:
04 When rail lengths are less than 36 inches, 4-inch wide stripes may be used.
Standard:
05 The minimum length for Type 1 and Type 2 Barricades shall be 24 inches, and the minimum length for Type 3 Barricades shall be 48 inches. Each barricade rail shall be 8 to 12 inches wide. Barricades used on freeways, expressways, and other high-speed roadways shall have a minimum of 270 square inches of retroreflective area facing road users.
Guidance:
06 Where barricades extend entirely across a roadway, the stripes should slope downward in the direction toward which road users must turn.
07 Where both right and left turns are provided, the barricade stripes should slope downward in both directions from the center of the barricade or barricades.
08 (DE Revision) Where no turns are intended, or the road is completely closed, the stripes should be positioned to slope downward toward the center of the barricade or barricades.
09 Barricade rails should be supported in a manner that will allow them to be seen by the road user, and in a manner that provides a stable support that is not easily blown over or displaced.
10 The width of the existing pedestrian facility should be provided for the temporary facility if practical. Traffic control devices and other construction materials and features should not intrude into the usable width of the sidewalk, temporary pathway, or other pedestrian facility. When it is not possible to maintain a minimum width of 60 inches throughout the entire length of the pedestrian pathway, a 60 x 60-inch passing space should be provided at least every 200 feet to allow individuals in wheelchairs to pass.
11 Barricade rail supports should not project into pedestrian circulation routes more than 4 inches from the support between 27 and 80 inches from the surface as described in Section 4.4.1 of the “Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities (ADAAG)” (see Section 1A.11).
Option:
12 (DE Revision) Paragraph deleted.
Guidance:
13 On high-speed expressways or in other situations where barricades may be susceptible to overturning in the wind, ballasting should be used.
Option:
14 Sandbags may be placed on the lower parts of the frame or the stays of barricades to provide the required ballast.
Standard:
14A (DE Revision) If used, sand ballasts shall consist of an appropriate mixture of material to preclude freezing.
Support:
15 (DE Revision) Paragraph deleted.
Option:
16 Barricades may be used alone or in groups to mark a specific condition or they may be used in a series for channelizing road users.
17 (DE Revision) Paragraph deleted.
Guidance:
18 (DE Revision) Paragraph deleted
Standard:
19 (DE Revision) Type 3 Barricades used at a road closure shall be placed completely across a roadway, from curb to curb, or from edge of road to edge of road, with the stripes positioned downward toward the center of the roadway.
Guidance:
20 Where provision is made for access of authorized equipment and vehicles, the responsibility for Type 3 Barricades should be assigned to a person who will provide proper closure at the end of each work day.
Support:
21 When a highway is legally closed but access must still be allowed for local road users, barricades usually are not extended completely across the roadway.
Standard:
22 A sign shall be installed with the appropriate legend concerning permissible use by local road users (see Section 6F.09). Adequate visibility of the barricades from both directions shall be provided.
Option:
23 Signs may be installed on barricades (see Section 6F.03).
Guidance:
24 (DE Revision) Signs mounted on Type 3 Barricades should not cover more than 50 percent of the top two rails or 33 percent of the total area of the three rails.
Section 6F.69 Direction Indicator Barricades
Standard:
01 (DE Revision) Paragraph deleted.
01A (DE Revision) The Direction Indicator Barricade shall not be used on state-maintained roads.
02 The One-Direction Large Arrow (W1-6) sign shall be black on an orange background. The stripes on the bottom rail shall be alternating orange and white retroreflective stripes sloping downward at an angle of 45 degrees in the direction road users are to pass. The stripes shall be 4 inches wide. The One-Direction Large Arrow (W1-6) sign shall be 24 x 12 inches. The bottom rail shall have a length of 24 inches and a height of 8 inches.
Option:
03 The Direction Indicator Barricade may be used in tapers, transitions, and other areas where specific directional guidance to drivers is necessary.
Guidance:
04 If used, Direction Indicator Barricades should be used in series to direct the driver through the transition and into the intended travel lane.
Section 6F.70 Temporary Traffic Barriers as Channelizing Devices
Support:
01 Temporary traffic barriers are not TTC devices in themselves; however, when placed in a position identical to a line of channelizing devices and marked and/or equipped with appropriate channelization features to provide guidance and warning both day and night, they serve as TTC devices.
Standard:
02 Temporary traffic barriers serving as TTC devices shall comply with requirements for such devices as set forth throughout Part 6.
03 Temporary traffic barriers (see Section 6F.85) shall not be used solely to channelize road users, but also to protect the work space. If used to channelize vehicular traffic, the temporary traffic barrier shall be supplemented with delineation, pavement markings, or channelizing devices for improved daytime and nighttime visibility.
Guidance:
04 Temporary traffic barriers should not be used for a merging taper except in low-speed urban areas.
05 When it is necessary to use a temporary traffic barrier for a merging taper in low-speed urban areas or for a constricted/restricted TTC zone, the taper length should be designed to optimize road user operations considering the available geometric conditions.
Standard:
06 When it is necessary to use a temporary traffic barrier for a merging taper in low-speed urban areas or for a constricted/restricted TTC zone, the taper shall be delineated.
Guidance:
07 When used for channelization, temporary traffic barriers should be of a light color for increased visibility.
Section 6F.71 Longitudinal Channelizing Devices
Support:
01 Longitudinal channelizing devices are lightweight, deformable devices that are highly visible, have good target value, and can be connected together.
Standard:
02 If used singly as Type 1, 2, or 3 barricades, longitudinal channelizing devices shall comply with the general size, color, stripe pattern, retroreflectivity, and placement characteristics established for the devices described in this Chapter.
Guidance:
03 If used to channelize vehicular traffic at night, longitudinal channelizing devices should be supplemented with retroreflective material or delineation for improved nighttime visibility.
Option:
04 Longitudinal channelizing devices may be used instead of a line of cones, drums, or barricades.
05 Longitudinal channelizing devices may be hollow and filled with water as a ballast.
06 Longitudinal channelizing devices may be used for pedestrian traffic control.
Standard:
07 If used for pedestrian traffic control, longitudinal channelizing devices shall be interlocked to delineate or channelize flow. The interlocking devices shall not have gaps that allow pedestrians to stray from the channelizing path.
Guidance:
08 Longitudinal channelizing devices have not met the crashworthy requirements for temporary traffic barriers and should not be used to shield obstacles or provide positive protection for pedestrians or workers.
Section 6F.72 Temporary Lane Separators
Option:
01 Temporary lane separators may be used to channelize road users, to divide opposing vehicular traffic lanes, to divide lanes when two or more lanes are open in the same direction, and to provide continuous pedestrian channelization.
Standard:
02 Temporary lane separators shall be crashworthy. Temporary lane separators shall have a maximum height of 4 inches and a maximum width of 1 foot, and shall have sloping sides in order to facilitate crossover by emergency vehicles.
Option:
03 Temporary lane separators may be supplemented with any of the approved channelizing devices contained in this Chapter, such as tubular markers, vertical panels, and opposing traffic lane dividers.
Standard:
04 If appropriate channelizing devices are used to supplement a temporary lane separator, the channelizing devices shall be retroreflectorized to provide nighttime visibility. If channelizing devices are not used, the temporary lane separator shall contain retroreflectorization to enhance its visibility.
Guidance:
05 A temporary lane separator should be stabilized by affixing it to the pavement in a manner suitable to its design, while allowing the unit to be shifted from place to place within the TTC zone in order to accommodate changing conditions.
Standard:
06 At pedestrian crossing locations, temporary lane separators shall have an opening or be shortened to provide a pathway that is at least 60 inches wide for crossing pedestrians.
Section 6F.73 Other Channelizing Devices
Option:
01 Channelizing devices other than those described in this Chapter may be used in special situations based on an engineering study.
Guidance:
02 Other channelizing devices should comply with the general size, color, stripe pattern, retroreflection, and placement characteristics established for the devices described in this Chapter.
Section 6F.74 Detectable Edging for Pedestrians
Support:
01 Individual channelizing devices, tape or rope used to connect individual devices, other discontinuous barriers and devices, and pavement markings are not detectable by persons with visual disabilities and are incapable of providing detectable path guidance on temporary or realigned sidewalks or other pedestrian facilities.
Guidance:
02 (DE Revision) When it is determined that a facility should be accessible to and detectable by pedestrians with visual disabilities, a continuously detectable edging should be provided throughout the length of the facility such that it can be followed by pedestrians using long canes for guidance. This edging should protrude at least 6 inches above the surface of the sidewalk or pathway, with the bottom of the edging a maximum of 2 inches above the surface. This edging should be continuous throughout the length of the facility except for gaps at locations where pedestrians or vehicles will be turning or crossing. This edging should consist of a prefabricated or formed-in-place curbing or other continuous device that is placed along the edge of the sidewalk or walkway. This edging should be firmly attached to the ground or to other devices. Adjacent sections of this edging should be interconnected such that the edging is not displaced by pedestrian or vehicular traffic or work operations, and such that it does not constitute a hazard to pedestrians, workers, or other road users.
Support:
03 Examples of detectable edging for pedestrians include:
A. Prefabricated lightweight sections of plastic, metal, or other suitable materials that are interconnected and fixed in place to form a continuous edge.
B. Prefabricated lightweight sections of plastic, metal, or other suitable materials that are interconnected, fixed in place, and placed at ground level to provide a continuous connection between channelizing devices located at intervals along the edge of the sidewalk or walkway.
C. Sections of lumber interconnected and fixed in place to form a continuous edge.
D. Formed-in-place asphalt or concrete curb.
E. Prefabricated concrete curb sections that are interconnected and fixed in place to form a continuous edge.
F. Continuous temporary traffic barrier or longitudinal channelizing barricades placed along the edge of the sidewalk or walkway that provides a pedestrian edging at ground level.
G. Chain link or other fencing equipped with a continuous bottom rail.
Guidance:
04 Detectable pedestrian edging should be orange, white, or yellow and should match the color of the adjacent channelizing devices or traffic control devices, if any are present.
Section 6F.75 Temporary Raised Islands
Standard:
01 Temporary raised islands shall be used only in combination with pavement striping and other suitable channelizing devices.
Option:
02 A temporary raised island may be used to separate vehicular traffic flows in two-lane, two-way operations on roadways having a vehicular traffic volume range of 4,000 to 15,000 average daily traffic (ADT) and on freeways having a vehicular traffic volume range of 22,000 ADT to 60,000 ADT.
03 Temporary raised islands also may be used in other than two-lane, two-way operations where physical separation of vehicular traffic from the TTC zone is not required.
Guidance:
04 Temporary raised islands should have the basic dimensions of 4 inches high by at least 12 inches wide and have rounded or chamfered corners.
05 The temporary raised islands should not be designed in such a manner that they would cause a motorist to lose control of the vehicle if the vehicle inadvertently strikes the temporary raised island. If struck, pieces of the island should not be dislodged to the extent that they could penetrate the occupant compartment or involve other vehicles.
Standard:
06 At pedestrian crossing locations, temporary raised islands shall have an opening or be shortened to provide at least a 60-inch wide pathway for the crossing pedestrian.
Section 6F.76 Opposing Traffic Lane Divider and Sign (W6-4)
Support:
01 Opposing traffic lane dividers are delineation devices used as center lane dividers to separate opposing vehicular traffic on a two-lane, two-way operation.
Standard:
02 Opposing traffic lane dividers shall not be placed across pedestrian crossings.
03 The Opposing Traffic Lane Divider (W6-4) sign (see Figure 6F-4) shall be an upright, retroreflective orange-colored sign placed on a flexible support and sized at least 12 inches wide by 18 inches high.
Section 6F.77 Pavement Markings
Support:
01 Pavement markings are installed or existing markings are maintained or enhanced in TTC zones to provide road users with a clearly defined path for travel through the TTC zone in day, night, and twilight periods under both wet and dry pavement conditions.
Guidance:
02 The work should be planned and staged to provide for the placement and removal of the pavement markings in a way that minimizes the disruption to traffic flow approaching and through the TTC zone during the placement and removal process.
Standard:
03 Existing pavement markings shall be maintained in all long-term stationary (see Section 6G.02) TTC zones in accordance with Chapters 3A and 3B, except as otherwise provided for temporary pavement markings in Section 6F.78. Pavement markings shall match the alignment of the markings in place at both ends of the TTC zone. Pavement markings shall be placed along the entire length of any paved detour or temporary roadway prior to the detour or roadway being opened to road users.
Support:
03A (DE Revision) DelDOT's Temporary Pavement Marking Policy can be found on the DelDOT website at www.deldot.gov.
Standard:
04 (DE Revision) For long-term stationary operations, pavement markings, including raised pavement markers, in the temporary traveled way that are no longer applicable shall be removed or obliterated as soon as practical. Pavement marking obliteration shall remove the non-applicable pavement marking material, and the obliteration method shall minimize pavement scarring. Painting over existing pavement markings with black paint or spraying with asphalt shall not be accepted as a substitute for removal or obliteration.
Option:
05 Removable, non-reflective, preformed tape that is approximately the same color as the pavement surface may be used where markings need to be covered temporarily.
06 (DE Revision) If a permanent raised pavement marker needs to be obscured in a TTC zone, the retroreflective lens of the raised pavement marker may be removed rather than removing the entire housing.
Section 6F.78 Temporary Markings
Support:
01 Temporary markings are those pavement markings or devices that are placed within TTC zones to provide road users with a clearly defined path of travel through the TTC zone when the permanent markings are either removed or obliterated during the work activities. Temporary markings are typically needed during the reconstruction of a road while it is open to traffic, such as overlays or surface treatments or where lanes are temporarily shifted on pavement that is to remain in place.
Guidance:
02 (DE Revision) Unless justified based on engineering judgment, temporary pavement markings should not remain in place for more than 30 days after the application of the pavement surface treatment or the construction of the final pavement surface on new roadways or over existing pavements.
03 The temporary use of edge lines, channelizing lines, lane-reduction transitions, gore markings, and other longitudinal markings, and the various non-longitudinal markings (such as stop lines, railroad crossings, crosswalks, words, symbols, or arrows) should be in accordance with the State’s or highway agency’s policy.
Standard:
04 Warning signs, channelizing devices, and delineation shall be used to indicate required road user paths in TTC zones where it is not possible to provide a clear path by pavement markings.
05 Except as otherwise provided in this Section, all temporary pavement markings for no-passing zones shall comply with the requirements of Chapters 3A and 3B. All temporary broken-line pavement markings shall use the same cycle length as permanent markings and shall have line segments that are at least 2 feet long.
Guidance:
06 All pavement markings and devices used to delineate road user paths should be reviewed during daytime and nighttime periods.
Option:
07 Half-cycle lengths with a minimum of 2-foot stripes may be used on roadways with severe curvature (see Section 3A.06) for broken line center lines in passing zones and for lane lines.
08 (DE Revision) For temporary situations of 3 days or less, for a two- or three-lane road, no-passing zones may be identified by using DO NOT PASS (R4-1) signs (see Section 2B.28) rather than pavement markings. Also, DO NOT PASS signs may be used instead of pavement markings on roads with low volumes for longer periods in accordance with the State’s or highway agency’s policy.
Guidance:
09 (DE Revision) If used, the DO NOT PASS signs should be placed in accordance with Section 2B.28 and DelDOT’s Temporary Pavement Markings Policy.
10 If used, the NO CENTER LINE sign should be placed in accordance with Section 6F.47.
Section 6F.79 Temporary Raised Pavement Markers
Option:
01 Retroreflective or internally illuminated raised pavement markers, or non-retroreflective raised pavement markers supplemented by retroreflective or internally illuminated markers, may be substituted for markings of other types in TTC zones.
Standard:
02 If used, the color and pattern of the raised pavement markers shall simulate the color and pattern of the markings for which they substitute.
03 If temporary raised pavement markers are used to substitute for broken line segments, a group of at least three retroreflective markers shall be equally spaced at no greater than N/8 (see Section 3B.14). The value of N for a broken or dotted line shall equal the length of one line segment plus one gap.
04 If temporary raised pavement markers are used to substitute for solid lines, the markers shall be equally spaced at no greater than N/4, with retroreflective or internally illuminated units at a spacing no greater than N/2. The value of N referenced for solid lines shall equal the N for the broken or dotted lines that might be adjacent to or might extend the solid lines (see Section 3B.11).
Option:
05 Temporary raised pavement markers may be used to substitute for broken line segments by using at least two retroreflective markers placed at each end of a segment of 2 to 5 feet in length, using the same cycle length as permanent markings.
Guidance:
06 Temporary raised pavement markers used on 2- to 5-foot segments to substitute for broken line segments should not be in place for more than 14 days unless justified by engineering judgment.
07 Raised pavement markers should be considered for use along surfaced detours or temporary roadways, and other changed or new travel-lane alignments.
Option:
08 Retroreflective or internally illuminated raised pavement markers, or non-retroreflective raised pavement markers supplemented by retroreflective or internally illuminated markers, may also be used in TTC zones to supplement markings as prescribed in Chapters 3A and 3B.
Standard:
09 (DE Revision) Due to their prior poor performance within Delaware, internally illuminated raised pavement markers shall only be permitted on state-maintained roads with DelDOT Traffic approval.
Section 6F.80 Delineators
Standard:
01 When used, delineators shall combine with or supplement other TTC devices. They shall be mounted on crashworthy supports so that the reflecting unit is approximately 4 feet above the near roadway edge. The standard color for delineators used along both sides of two-way streets and highways and the right-hand side of one-way roadways shall be white. Delineators used along the left-hand side of one-way roadways shall be yellow.
Guidance:
02 Spacing along roadway curves should be as set forth in Section 3F.04 and should be such that several delineators are constantly visible to the driver.
Option:
03 Delineators may be used in TTC zones to indicate the alignment of the roadway and to outline the required vehicle path through the TTC zone.
Section 6F.81 Lighting Devices
Standard:
01A (DE Revision) All work-related vehicles and equipment operating within a TTC zone shall be equipped with and display flashing lights.
Guidance:
01 Lighting devices should be provided in TTC zones based on engineering judgment.
02 When used to supplement channelization, the maximum spacing for warning lights should be identical to the channelizing device spacing requirements.
Option:
03 Lighting devices may be used to supplement retroreflectorized signs, barriers, and channelizing devices.
04 During normal daytime maintenance operations, the functions of flashing warning beacons may be provided by high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights on a maintenance vehicle.
Standard:
05 Although vehicle hazard warning lights are permitted to be used to supplement high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights, they shall not be used instead of high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights.
06 (DE Revision) Flashing lights shall be either a separate large rotating amber beacon or strobe light(s). Flashing lights shall be mounted on the vehicle in such a manner as to be clearly visible for 360 degrees around the vehicle. The flashing lights shall be visible from a distance of not less than 3,000 feet under normal atmospheric conditions at night.
Option:
07 (DE Revision) Vehicles that are also expected to perform incident management may supplement the amber flashing lights at the rear of the vehicle with red flashing lights at the rear of the vehicle.
Section 6F.82 Floodlights
Support:
01 Utility, maintenance, or construction activities on highways are frequently conducted during nighttime periods when vehicular traffic volumes are lower. Large construction projects are sometimes operated on a double-shift basis requiring night work (see Section 6G.19).
Guidance:
02 When nighttime work is being performed, floodlights should be used to illuminate the work area, equipment crossings, and other areas.
02A (DE Revision) Floodlights should be placed off the shoulder of the roadway and behind a traffic barrier, if practical. Where a traffic barrier is not available to shield the floodlight, it should be placed off the shoulder and outside of the clear zone.
Standard:
02B (DE Revision) If a floodlight is placed on the shoulder of the roadway or within the clear zone, it shall be delineated with retroreflective TTC devices.
02C (DE Revision) Six (6) drums shall be provided to close the shoulder in advance of each floodlight located within the shoulder.
Guidance:
02D (DE Revision) If a floodlight is placed on the median of a divided roadway and is less than 30 feet from either direction of travel, the floodlight should be delineated with 6 drums in that direction of travel.
02E (DE Revision) Floodlights should be located, to the extent possible, outside of the clear zone or shielded behind a traffic barrier.
Standard:
02F (DE Revision) When floodlights are not being used and if relocation or shielding is not practical, floodlights shall be delineated with a minimum of 6 drums.
02G (DE Revision) All floodlights no longer in use shall be removed from the work area within 48 hours, unless approved by DelDOT Traffic.
03 Except in emergency situations, flagger stations shall be illuminated at night.
04 Floodlighting shall not produce a disabling glare condition for approaching road users, flaggers, or workers.
Guidance:
05 The adequacy of the floodlight placement and elimination of potential glare should be determined by driving through and observing the floodlighted area from each direction on all approaching roadways after the initial floodlight setup, at night, and periodically.
Support:
06 Desired illumination levels vary depending upon the nature of the task involved. An average horizontal luminance of 5 foot candles can be adequate for general activities. Tasks requiring high levels of precision and extreme care can require an average horizontal luminance of 20 foot candles.
Section 6F.83 Warning Lights
Support:
01 Type A, Type B, Type C, and Type D 360-degree warning lights are portable, powered, yellow, lens-directed, enclosed lights.
Guidance:
01A (DE Revision) Except as provided in Paragraph 1B, warning lights should not be used on state-maintained roads.
Option:
01B (DE Revision) When added conspicuity is desired, only Type B warning lights may be used.
Standard:
02 Warning lights shall be in accordance with the current ITE “Purchase Specification for Flashing and Steady-Burn Warning Lights” (see Section 1A.11).
03 When warning lights are used, they shall be mounted on signs or channelizing devices in a manner that, if hit by an errant vehicle, they will not be likely to penetrate the windshield.
Guidance:
04 The maximum spacing for warning lights should be identical to the channelizing device spacing requirements.
Support:
05 The light weight and portability of warning lights are advantages that make these devices useful as supplements to the retroreflectorization on signs and channelizing devices. The flashing lights are effective in attracting road users’ attention.
Option:
06 Warning lights may be used in either a steady-burn or flashing mode.
Standard:
07 Except for the sequential flashing warning lights that are described in Paragraphs 8 and 9, flashing warning lights shall not be used for delineation, as a series of flashers fails to identify the desired vehicle path.
 
Option:
08 A series of sequential flashing warning lights may be placed on channelizing devices that form a merging taper in order to increase driver detection and recognition of the merging taper.
Standard:
09 If a series of sequential flashing warning lights is used, the successive flashing of the lights shall occur from the upstream end of the merging taper to the downstream end of the merging taper in order to identify the desired vehicle path. Each flashing warning light in the sequence shall be flashed at a rate of not less than 55 or more than 75 times per minute.
10 Type A Low-Intensity Flashing warning lights, Type C Steady-Burn warning lights, and Type D 360-degree Steady-Burn warning lights shall be maintained so as to be capable of being visible on a clear night from a distance of 3,000 feet. Type B High-Intensity Flashing warning lights shall be maintained so as to be capable of being visible on a sunny day when viewed without the sun directly on or behind the device from a distance of 1,000 feet.
11 Warning lights shall have a minimum mounting height of 30 inches to the bottom of the lens.
Support:
12 Type A Low-Intensity Flashing warning lights are used to warn road users during nighttime hours that they are approaching or proceeding in a potentially hazardous area.
Option:
13 Type A warning lights may be mounted on channelizing devices.
Support:
14 Type B High-Intensity Flashing warning lights are used to warn road users during both daylight and nighttime hours that they are approaching a potentially hazardous area.
Option:
15 Type B warning lights are designed to operate 24 hours per day and may be mounted on advance warning signs or on independent supports.
16 Type C Steady-Burn warning lights and Type D 360-degree Steady-Burn warning lights may be used during nighttime hours to delineate the edge of the traveled way.
Guidance:
17 When used to delineate a curve, Type C and Type D 360-degree warning lights should only be used on devices on the outside of the curve, and not on the inside of the curve.
Section 6F.84 Temporary Traffic Control Signals
Standard:
01 Temporary traffic control signals (see Section 4D.32) used to control road user movements through TTC zones and in other TTC situations shall comply with the applicable provisions of Part 4.
01A (DE Revision) All temporary traffic control signals along state-maintained roadways shall have a signal plan approved by DelDOT Traffic.
Support:
02 Temporary traffic control signals are typically used in TTC zones such as temporary haul road crossings; temporary one-way operations along a one-lane, two-way highway; temporary one-way operations on bridges, reversible lanes, and intersections.
Standard:
03 A temporary traffic control signal that is used to control traffic through a one-lane, two-way section of roadway shall comply with the provisions of Section 4H.02.
Guidance:
04 Where pedestrian traffic is detoured to a temporary traffic control signal, engineering judgment should be used to determine if pedestrian signals or accessible pedestrian signals (see Section 4E.09) are needed for crossing along an alternate route.
05 When temporary traffic control signals are used, conflict monitors typical of traditional traffic control signal operations should be used.
Option:
06 Temporary traffic control signals may be portable or temporarily mounted on fixed supports.
Guidance:
07 Temporary traffic control signals should only be used in situations where temporary traffic control signals are preferable to other means of traffic control, such as changing the work staging or work zone size to eliminate one-way vehicular traffic movements, using flaggers to control one-way or crossing movements, using STOP or YIELD signs, and using warning devices alone.
Support:
08 Factors related to the design and application of temporary traffic control signals include the following:
A. Safety and road user needs;
B. Work staging and operations;
C. The feasibility of using other TTC strategies (for example, flaggers, providing space for two lanes, or detouring road users, including bicyclists and pedestrians);
D. Sight distance restrictions;
E. Human factors considerations (for example, lack of driver familiarity with temporary traffic control signals);
F. Road-user volumes including roadway and intersection capacity;
G. Affected side streets and driveways;
H. Vehicle speeds;
I. The placement of other TTC devices;
J. Parking;
K. Turning restrictions;
L. Pedestrians;
M. The nature of adjacent land uses (such as residential or commercial);
N. Legal authority;
O. Signal phasing and timing requirements;
P. Full-time or part-time operation;
Q. Actuated, fixed-time, or manual operation;
R. Power failures or other emergencies;
S. Inspection and maintenance needs;
T. Need for detailed placement, timing, and operation records; and
U. Operation by contractors or by others.
09 Although temporary traffic control signals can be mounted on trailers or lightweight portable supports, fixed supports offer superior resistance to displacement or damage by severe weather, vehicle impact, and vandalism.
Guidance:
10 Other TTC devices should be used to supplement temporary traffic control signals, including warning and regulatory signs, pavement markings, and channelizing devices.
11 Temporary traffic control signals not in use should be covered or removed.
12 If a temporary traffic control signal is located within 1/2 mile of an adjacent traffic control signal, consideration should be given to interconnected operation.
Standard:
13 Temporary traffic control signals shall not be located within 200 feet of a grade crossing unless the temporary traffic control signal is provided with preemption in accordance with Section 4D.27, or unless a uniformed officer or flagger is provided at the crossing to prevent vehicles from stopping within the crossing.
Section 6F.85 Temporary Traffic Barriers
Support:
01 Temporary traffic barriers, including shifting portable or movable barriers, are devices designed to help prevent penetration by vehicles while minimizing injuries to vehicle occupants, and to protect workers, bicyclists, and pedestrians.
02 The four primary functions of temporary traffic barriers are:
A. To keep vehicular traffic from entering work areas, such as excavations or material storage sites;
B. To separate workers, bicyclists, and pedestrians from motor vehicle traffic;
C. To separate opposing directions of vehicular traffic; and
D. To separate vehicular traffic, bicyclists, and pedestrians from the work area such as false work for bridges and other exposed objects.
Option:
03 Temporary traffic barriers may be used to separate two-way vehicular traffic.
Guidance:
04 (DE Revision) Paragraph deleted.
Standard:
05 Temporary traffic barriers shall be supplemented with standard delineation, pavement markings, or channelizing devices for improved daytime and nighttime visibility if they are used to channelize vehicular traffic. The delineation color shall match the applicable pavement marking color.
Guidance:
05A (DE Revision) Prior to installation, temporary Portland cement concrete traffic barrier should be painted white on the side adjacent to traffic. If the temporary Portland cement concrete traffic barrier is in place longer than one year, the temporary Portland cement concrete traffic barrier should be painted white on the side adjacent to traffic once per year until the barrier is no longer needed and removed from the roadway.
Option:
05B (DE Revision) Temporary Portland cement concrete traffic barrier manufactured with white cement may be used to eliminate the need for painting the temporary Portland cement concrete traffic barrier
Guidance:
05C (DE Revision) Temporary traffic barriers should be cleaned once every three months while in place on the roadway unless otherwise directed by DelDOT Traffic. Cleaning of the temporary traffic barrier during winter months should be completed in a manner that does not create ice on the roadway.
Standard:
05D (DE Revision) For enhanced conspicuity, non-directional retroreflective panels (see Figure 6F-8) shall be 6-inch wide and 12-inch high with rounded corners. The non-directional retroreflective panel shall have fluorescent orange, prismatic retroreflective sheeting on both sides.
05E (DE Revision) When used, non-directional retroreflective panels shall be placed at 50-foot intervals. The first panel shall be mounted within 10 feet of the leading edge of barrier.
05F (DE Revision) The non-directional retroreflective panels shall be attached to the temporary traffic barrier in such a manner as to prevent accidental removal. Bolts or epoxy-based adhesives shall be used.
06 Temporary traffic barriers, including their end treatments, shall be crashworthy. In order to mitigate the effect of striking the upstream end of a temporary traffic barrier, the end shall be installed in accordance with AASHTO’s “Roadside Design Guide” (see Section 1A.11) by flaring until the end is outside the acceptable clear zone or by providing crashworthy end treatments.
06A (DE Revision) Beginning January 1, 2016, temporary Portland cement concrete traffic barrier shall be crashworthy in accordance with NCHRP 350 or latest edition of the Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH), published by AASHTO.
 
 
 
 
Option:
06B (DE Revision) Prior to January 1, 2016, temporary Portland Cement concrete traffic barrier that is not crashworthy in accordance with NCHRP 350 or the latest edition of MASH may be used on state maintained roadways if it meets or exceeds all of the following criteria:
A. The barrier was manufactured prior to October 1, 2002
B. The barrier is constructed of Class A concrete (as defined in the DelDOT Standard Specifications) and is adequately reinforced
C. Has a joint system that provides a positive connection between adjacent segments that can transfer tension and moment in a vertical plane across the joint.
Standard:
06C (DE Revision) If temporary Portland Cement concrete traffic barrier that is not crashworthy as described in Paragraph 6A is used, the Contractor shall certify, in writing, to the Engineer and DelDOT Traffic prior to installation, that the barrier meets the above three conditions in Paragraph 6C and the joint system provided has been tested and found acceptable under NCHRP Report 230 test criteria.
06D (DE Revision) Temporary traffic barrier shall be offset a minimum of 1 foot from the edge of traveled way.
Guidance:
06E (DE Revision) On state-maintained roads with a posted or 85th percentile speed greater than 40 mph, the rate of taper for the flare of a traffic barrier should be 17:1. If space constraints limit the length of flare, a minimum taper rate of 11:1 should be used.
06F (DE Revision) When space permits, the leading edge of the attenuator/barrier should have a lateral offset of at least 12 feet from the traveled way.
06G (DE Revision) If unpinned barrier is used, a lateral offset of at least 5 feet should be provided between the barrier and the work area. Consideration should be given to pinning the barrier if work is performed within 5 feet of the barrier.
06H (DE Revision) When space permits, channelizing devices should be placed along the tangent section of the traveled way for a distance equal to the buffer space measured from the intersection of the barrier and the right-hand edge of the closed travel lane (see Figure 6H-34).
Option:
07 Warning lights or steady-burn lamps may be mounted on temporary traffic barrier installations.
Support:
08 Movable barriers are capable of being repositioned laterally using a transfer vehicle that travels along the barrier. Movable barriers enable short-term closures to be installed and removed on long-term projects. Providing a barrier-protected work space for short-term closures and providing unbalanced flow to accommodate changes in the direction of peak-period traffic flows are two of the advantages of using movable barriers.
09 Figure 6H-45 shows a temporary reversible lane using movable barriers. The notable feature of the movable barrier is that in both Phase A and Phase B, the lanes used by opposing traffic are separated by a barrier.
10 Figure 6H-34 shows an exterior lane closure using a temporary traffic barrier. Notes 7 though 9 address the option of using a movable barrier. By using a movable barrier, the barrier can be positioned to close the lane during the off-peak periods and can be relocated to open the lane during peak periods to accommodate peak traffic flows. With one pass of the transfer vehicle, the barrier can be moved out of the lane and onto the shoulder. Furthermore, if so desired, with a second pass of the transfer vehicle, the barrier could be moved to the roadside beyond the shoulder.
11 (DE Revision) More specific information on the use of temporary traffic barriers is contained in Chapters 8 and 9 of AASHTO’s “Roadside Design Guide” (see Section 1A.11) and DelDOT’s Design Guidance Memorandum No. 1-21.
Section 6F.86 Crash Cushions
Support:
01 (DE Revision) In Delaware, crash cushions typically refer to sand crash cushion arrays and impact attenuators. Crash cushions are systems that mitigate the effects of errant vehicles that strike obstacles, either by smoothly decelerating the vehicle to a stop when hit head-on, or by redirecting the errant vehicle. The two types of crash cushions that are used in TTC zones are stationary crash cushions and truck-mounted attenuators. Crash cushions in TTC zones help protect the drivers from the exposed ends of barriers, fixed objects, shadow vehicles, and other obstacles. Specific information on the use of crash cushions can be found in AASHTO’s “Roadside Design Guide” (see Section 1A.11).
Standard:
02 Crash cushions shall be crashworthy. They shall also be designed for each application to stop or redirect errant vehicles under prescribed conditions. Crash cushions shall be periodically inspected to verify that they have not been hit or damaged. Damaged crash cushions shall be promptly repaired or replaced to maintain their crashworthiness.
Support:
03 Stationary crash cushions are used in the same manner as permanent highway installations to protect drivers from the exposed ends of barriers, fixed objects, and other obstacles.
Standard:
04 Stationary crash cushions shall be designed for the specific application intended.
Guidance:
04A (DE Revision) The following factors should be considered when selecting the type of crash cushion or impact attenuator:
A. Speed of vehicles;
B. Duration of use (maintenance);
C. Width of device;
D. Cross-section of roadway (pavement and slope); and
E. Direction of impact.
F. Runout area behind attenuator/barrier
04B (DE Revision) Sand crash cushion arrays should not be used in applications that could result in a reverse strike by vehicles traveling in the opposite direction. It is acceptable to use sand crash cushion arrays if they are outside the clear zone of the opposite direction of traffic.Standard:
04C (DE Revision) Sand crash cushions shall be designed according to manufacturer’s recommendations and NCHRP 350 or MASH approved testing methods.
Guidance:
04D (DE Revision) If it is expected that sand crash cushions will be used in conditions where freezing could be expected, a suitable mixture of material should be used to preclude the ballast from freezing.
Option:
04E (DE Revision) Sand crash cushions may be used for short-duration maintenance purposes or for long-term projects where it is infeasible to install an impact attenuator.
Guidance:
04F (DE Revision) Stationary impact attenuators should be used instead of sand crash cushions for most long-term projects and, where practical, for short-duration maintenance purposes.
04G (DE Revision) Except for short-duration maintenance purposes, sand crash cushions should not be used without DelDOT Traffic approval.
Standard:
05 Truck-mounted attenuators shall be energy-absorbing devices attached to the rear of shadow trailers or trucks. If used, the shadow vehicle with the attenuator shall be located in advance of the work area, workers, or equipment to reduce the severity of rear-end crashes from errant vehicles.
05A (DE Revision) For long-term, intermediate-term, short-term, and mobile operations requiring shoulder and/or lane closures, a truck-mounted attenuator shall be used on roadways with a posted speed limit or 85th-percentile speed greater than 40 miles per hour, except as provided in Paragraphs 5B, 5C and 5E.
Option:
05B (DE Revision) For short-duration operations of 15 minutes or less along roadways with a posted speed limit or 85th-percentile speed greater than 40 miles per hour, a truck-mounted attenuator may be omitted if a vehicle with activated high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights is used or if the shoulder width is less than the width of a truck-mounted attenuator.
05C (DE Revision) Truck-mounted attenuators may be omitted from specialized work vehicles, such as sweeper, vacuum, and pothole patching trucks, and other work vehicles that cannot support the installation of a truck-mounted attenuator.
05D (DE Revision) Truck-mounted attenuators may be used for all operations along roadways with a posted speed limit or 85th-percentile speed less than or equal to 40 miles per hour based on engineering judgment.
05E (DE Revision) If a shadow vehicle is used for mowing operations along a two-way, two-lane road, a truck-mounted attenuator may be omitted.
Support:
06 Trucks or trailers are often used as shadow vehicles to protect workers or work equipment from errant vehicles. These shadow vehicles are normally equipped with flashing arrows, changeable message signs, and/or high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights located properly in advance of the workers and/or equipment that they are protecting. However, these shadow vehicles might themselves cause injuries to occupants of the errant vehicles if they are not equipped with truck-mounted attenuators.
Guidance:
07 (DE Revision) The shadow truck should be positioned a sufficient distance in advance of the workers or equipment being protected so that there will be sufficient distance, but not so much so that errant vehicles will travel around the shadow truck and strike the protected workers and/or equipment. This “roll-ahead” distance should be based on the truck-mounted attenuator manufacturer’s specifications.
Support:
08 Chapter 9 of AASHTO’s “Roadside Design Guide” (see Section 1A.11) contains additional information regarding the use of shadow vehicles.
Guidance:
09 If used, the truck-mounted attenuator should be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications.
Section 6F.87 Rumble Strips
Support:
01 Transverse rumble strips consist of intermittent, narrow, transverse areas of rough-textured or slightly raised or depressed road surface that extend across the travel lanes to alert drivers to unusual vehicular traffic conditions. Through noise and vibration they attract the driver’s attention to such features as unexpected changes in alignment and to conditions requiring a stop.
02 Longitudinal rumble strips consist of a series of rough-textured or slightly raised or depressed road surfaces located along the shoulder to alert road users that they are leaving the travel lanes.
Standard:
03 If it is desirable to use a color other than the color of the pavement for a longitudinal rumble strip, the color of the rumble strip shall be the same color as the longitudinal line the rumble strip supplements.
04 (DE Revision) If the color of a transverse rumble strip used within a travel lane is not the color of the pavement, the color of the rumble strip shall be white or black.
Option:
05 Intervals between transverse rumble strips may be reduced as the distance to the approached conditions is diminished in order to convey an impression that a closure speed is too fast and/or that an action is imminent. A sign warning drivers of the onset of rumble strips may be placed in advance of any transverse rumble strip installation.
Guidance:
06 Transverse rumble strips should be placed transverse to vehicular traffic movement. They should not adversely affect overall pavement skid resistance under wet or dry conditions.
07 In urban areas, even though a closer spacing might be warranted, transverse rumble strips should be designed in a manner that does not promote unnecessary braking or erratic steering maneuvers by road users.
08 Transverse rumble strips should not be placed on sharp horizontal or vertical curves.
09 Rumble strips should not be placed through pedestrian crossings or on bicycle routes.
10 Transverse rumble strips should not be placed on roadways used by bicyclists unless a minimum clear path of 4 feet is provided at each edge of the roadway or on each paved shoulder as described in AASHTO’s “Guide to the Development of Bicycle Facilities” (see Section 1A.11).
11 Longitudinal rumble strips should not be placed on the shoulder of a roadway that is used by bicyclists unless a minimum clear path of 4 feet is also provided on the shoulder.
12 (DE Revision) Raised white transverse rumble strips used in a travel lane to alert motorists of a stop or other condition should be installed in accordance with Table 3J-1.
13 (DE Revision) Raised white transverse rumble strips should consist of a 4-inch line placed on top of a 6-inch line.
Section 6F.88 Screens
Support:
01 Screens are used to block the road users’ view of activities that can be distracting. Screens might improve safety and motor vehicle traffic flow where volumes approach the roadway capacity because they discourage gawking and reduce headlight glare from oncoming motor vehicle traffic.
Guidance:
02 Screens should not be mounted where they could adversely restrict road user visibility and sight distance and adversely affect the reasonably safe operation of vehicles.
Option:
03 Screens may be mounted on the top of temporary traffic barriers that separate two-way motor vehicle traffic.
Guidance:
04 Design of screens should be in accordance with Chapter 9 of AASHTO’s “Roadside Design Guide” (see Section 1A.11).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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CHAPTER 6G. TYPE OF TEMPORARY TRAFFIC CONTROL ZONE ACTIVITIES
Section 6G.01 Typical Applications
Support:
01 Each TTC zone is different. Many variables, such as location of work, highway type, geometrics, vertical and horizontal alignment, intersections, interchanges, road user volumes, road vehicle mix (buses, trucks, and cars), and road user speeds affect the needs of each zone. The goal of TTC in work zones is safety with minimum disruption to road users. The key factor in promoting TTC zone safety is proper judgment.
02 Typical applications (TAs) of TTC zones are organized according to duration, location, type of work, and highway type. Table 6H-1 is an index of these typical applications. These typical applications include the use of various TTC methods, but do not include a layout for every conceivable work situation.
03 Well-designed TTC plans for planned special events will likely be developed from a combination of treatments from several of the typical applications.
Guidance:
04 For any planned special event that will have an impact on the traffic on any street or highway, a TTC plan should be developed in conjunction with and be approved by the agency or agencies that have jurisdiction over the affected roadways.
05 Typical applications should be altered, when necessary, to fit the conditions of a particular TTC zone.
Option:
06 Other devices may be added to supplement the devices shown in the typical applications, while others may be deleted. The sign spacings and taper lengths may be increased to provide additional time or space for driver response.
Support:
07 Decisions regarding the selection of the most appropriate typical application to use as a guide for a specific TTC zone require an understanding of each situation. Although there are many ways of categorizing TTC zone applications, the four factors mentioned earlier (work duration, work location, work type, and highway type) are used to characterize the typical applications illustrated in Chapter 6H.
Section 6G.02 Work Duration
Support:
01 Work duration is a major factor in determining the number and types of devices used in TTC zones. The duration of a TTC zone is defined relative to the length of time a work operation occupies a spot location.
Standard:
02 The five categories of work duration and their time at a location shall be:
A. Long-term stationary is work that occupies a location more than 3 days.
B. Intermediate-term stationary is work that occupies a location more than one daylight period up to 3 days, or nighttime work lasting more than 1 hour.
C. Short-term stationary is daytime work that occupies a location for more than 1 hour within a single daylight period.
D. Short duration is work that occupies a location up to 1 hour.
E. Mobile is work that moves intermittently or continuously.
Support:
03 At long-term stationary TTC zones, there is ample time to install and realize benefits from the full range of TTC procedures and devices that are available for use. Generally, larger channelizing devices, temporary roadways, and temporary traffic barriers are used.
Standard:
04 Since long-term operations extend into nighttime, retroreflective and/or illuminated devices shall be used in long-term stationary TTC zones.
Guidance:
05 Inappropriate markings in long-term stationary TTC zones should be removed and replaced with temporary markings.
Support:
06 In intermediate-term stationary TTC zones, it might not be feasible or practical to use procedures or devices that would be desirable for long-term stationary TTC zones, such as altered pavement markings, temporary traffic barriers, and temporary roadways. The increased time to place and remove these devices in some cases could significantly lengthen the project, thus increasing exposure time.
Standard:
07 Since intermediate-term operations extend into nighttime, retroreflective and/or illuminated devices shall be used in intermediate-term stationary TTC zones.
Support:
08 (DE Revision) Most maintenance and utility operations are short-term stationary, short duration, or mobile work.
09 As compared to stationary operations, mobile and short-duration operations are activities that might involve different treatments. Devices having greater mobility might be necessary such as signs mounted on trucks. Devices that are larger, more imposing, or more visible can be used effectively and economically. The mobility of the TTC zone is important.
09A (DE Revision) Short-term stationary, short duration, and mobile operations can include, but are not limited to, both planned and unplanned maintenance activities. Unplanned maintenance activities generally consist of emergency work, such as an inoperative traffic signal, that must be performed without formal TTC planning because the safety of the travelling public may be at risk if the work is not completed in a timely manner.
Guidance:
10 Safety in short-duration or mobile operations should not be compromised by using fewer devices simply because the operation will frequently change its location.
Option:
11 Appropriately colored or marked vehicles with high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights may be used in place of signs and channelizing devices for short-duration or mobile operations. These vehicles may be augmented with signs or arrow boards.
Support:
12 During short-duration work, it often takes longer to set up and remove the TTC zone than to perform the work. Workers face hazards in setting up and taking down the TTC zone. Also, since the work time is short, delays affecting road users are significantly increased when additional devices are installed and removed.
Option:
13 Considering these factors, simplified control procedures may be warranted for short-duration work. A reduction in the number of devices may be offset by the use of other more dominant devices such as high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights on work vehicles.
13A (DE Revision) Short duration operations of 15 minutes or less may only require a marked vehicle with high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights.
Support:
14 Mobile operations often involve frequent short stops for activities such as litter cleanup, pothole patching, or utility operations, and are similar to short-duration operations.
Guidance:
15 Warning signs and high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights should be used on the vehicles that are participating in the mobile work.
Option:
16 Flags and/or channelizing devices may additionally be used and moved periodically to keep them near the mobile work area.
17 Flaggers may be used for mobile operations that often involve frequent short stops.
Guidance:
17A (DE Revision) If the work operation requires a flagger to assist work vehicles entering or exiting the work area or to periodically control traffic, flagger signs (see Section 6F.31) should be used in addition to the typical advance warning signs for each application. If used, the flagger signs should be located at the downstream end of the advance warning area, which typically corresponds with the beginning of a transition taper.
Support:
18 Mobile operations also include work activities where workers and equipment move along the road without stopping, usually at slow speeds. The advance warning area moves with the work area.
Guidance:
19 When mobile operations are being performed, a shadow vehicle equipped with an arrow board or a sign should follow the work vehicle, especially when vehicular traffic speeds or volumes are high. Where feasible, warning signs should be placed along the roadway and moved periodically as work progresses.
20 (DE Revision) Under high-volume conditions, consideration should be given to scheduling mobile operations work during off-peak hours to the extent practical.
21 If there are mobile operations on a high-speed travel lane of a multi-lane divided highway, arrow boards should be used.
Standard:
22 Mobile operations shall have appropriate devices on the equipment (that is, high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights, signs, or special lighting), or shall use a separate vehicle with appropriate warning devices.
Option:
23 For mobile operations that move at speeds of less than 3 mph, mobile signs or stationary signing that is periodically retrieved and repositioned in the advance warning area may be used.
23A (DE Revision) For mobile striping operations, WET ROAD PAINT (W25-1-DE or W25-1-DE1) mobile signs may be used.
Section 6G.03 Location of Work
Support:
01 Chapter 6D and Sections 6F.74 and 6G.05 contain additional information regarding the steps to follow when pedestrian or bicycle facilities are affected by the worksite.
02 The choice of TTC needed for a TTC zone depends upon where the work is located. As a general rule, the closer the work is to road users (including bicyclists and pedestrians), the greater the number of TTC devices that are needed. Procedures are described later in this Chapter for establishing TTC zones in the following locations:
A. Outside the shoulder,
B. On the shoulder with no encroachment,
C. On the shoulder with minor encroachment,
D. Within the median, and
E. Within the traveled way.
Standard:
03 When the work space is within the traveled way, except for short-duration and mobile operations, advance warning shall provide a general message that work is taking place and shall supply information about highway conditions. TTC devices shall indicate how vehicular traffic can move through the TTC zone.
Section 6G.04 Modifications To Fulfill Special Needs
Support:
01 The typical applications in Chapter 6H illustrate commonly encountered situations in which TTC devices are employed.
Option:
02 Other devices may be added to supplement the devices provided in the typical applications, and device spacing may be adjusted to provide additional reaction time. When conditions are less complex than those depicted in the typical applications, fewer devices may be needed.
Guidance:
03 When conditions are more complex, typical applications should be modified by giving particular attention to the provisions set forth in Chapter 6B and by incorporating appropriate devices and practices from the following list:
A. Additional devices:
1. Signs
2. Arrow boards
3. More channelizing devices at closer spacing (see Section 6F.74 for information regarding detectable edging for pedestrians)
4. Temporary raised pavement markers
5. High-level warning devices
6. Portable changeable message signs
7. Temporary traffic control signals (including pedestrian signals and accessible pedestrian signals)
8. Temporary traffic barriers
9. Crash cushions
10. Screens
11. Rumble strips
12. More delineation
B. Upgrading of devices:
1. A full complement of standard pavement markings
2. Brighter and/or wider pavement markings
3. Larger and/or brighter signs
4. Channelizing devices with greater conspicuity
5. Temporary traffic barriers in place of channelizing devices
C. Improved geometrics at detours or crossovers
D. Increased distances:
1. Longer advance warning area
2. Longer tapers
E. Lighting:
1. Temporary roadway lighting
2. Steady-burn lights used with channelizing devices
3. Flashing lights for isolated hazards
4. Illuminated signs
5. Floodlights
F. Pedestrian routes and temporary facilities
G. Bicycle diversions and temporary facilities
Section 6G.05 Work Affecting Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities
Support:
01 It is not uncommon, particularly in urban areas, that road work and the associated TTC will affect existing pedestrian or bicycle facilities. It is essential that the needs of all road users, including pedestrians with disabilities, are considered in TTC zones.
02 In addition to specific provisions identified in Sections 6G.06 through 6G.14, there are a number of provisions that might be applicable for all of the types of activities identified in this Chapter.
Guidance:
03 Where pedestrian or bicycle usage is high, the typical applications should be modified by giving particular attention to the provisions set forth in Chapter 6D, this Chapter, Section 6F.74, and in other Sections of Part 6 related to accessibility and detectability provisions in TTC zones.
04 Pedestrians should be separated from the worksite by appropriate devices that maintain the accessibility and detectability for pedestrians with disabilities.
05 Bicyclists and pedestrians should not be exposed to unprotected excavations, open utility access, overhanging equipment, or other such conditions.
06 (DE Revision) Except for short duration and mobile operations, when a highway shoulder is occupied, a SHOULDER CLOSED (W21-5a) sign should be placed in advance of the activity area. When work is performed on a paved shoulder 8 feet or more in width, channelizing devices should be placed on a taper having a length that conforms to the requirements of a shoulder taper. Signs should be placed such that they do not narrow any existing pedestrian passages to less than 48 inches.
07 Pedestrian detours should be avoided since pedestrians rarely observe them and the cost of providing accessibility and detectability might outweigh the cost of maintaining a continuous route. Whenever possible, work should be done in a manner that does not create a need to detour pedestrians from existing routes or crossings.
Standard:
08 Where pedestrian routes are closed, alternate pedestrian routes shall be provided.
09 (DE Revision) If the TTC zone affects the movement of pedestrians, adequate pedestrian access and walkways shall be provided. If the TTC zone affects an accessible and detectable pedestrian facility, the accessibility and detectability shall be maintained along the alternate pedestrian route.
Option:
09A (DE Revision) If establishing or maintaining an alternate pedestrian route is not feasible during the project, an alternate means of providing for pedestrians may be used, such as adding free bus service around the project or assigning someone the responsibility to assist pedestrians with disabilities through the project limits.
Section 6G.06 Work Outside of the Shoulder
Support:
01 (DE Revision) When work is being performed off the roadway (beyond the shoulders, but within the right-of-way), little or no TTC might be needed. TTC generally is not needed where work is confined to an area 10 feet or more from the edge of the traveled way. However, TTC is appropriate where distracting situations exist, such as vehicles parked on the shoulder, vehicles accessing the worksite via the highway, and equipment traveling on or crossing the roadway to perform the work operations (for example, mowing). For work beyond the shoulder, see Figures 6H-1, 6H-1A, 6H-1B, 6H-2, and 6H-5A.
Guidance:
02 Where the situations described in Paragraph 1 exist, a single warning sign, such as ROAD WORK AHEAD (W20-1), should be used. If the equipment travels on the roadway, the equipment should be equipped with appropriate flags, high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights, and/or a SLOW MOVING VEHICLE (W21-4) sign.
Option:
03 (DE Revision) If work vehicles are on the shoulder, a SHOULDER CLOSED (W21-5a) sign may be used. For mowing operations, the signs MOWING AHEAD (W21-8) and END MOWING (G20-2-DE) may be used.
04 (DE Revision) Where the activity is spread out over a distance of more than 2 miles, the SHOULDER CLOSED (W21-5a) sign may be repeated every 1 mile.
05 A supplementary plaque with the message NEXT XX MILES (W7-3aP) may be used.
Guidance:
06 A general warning sign like ROAD MACHINERY AHEAD (W21-3) should be used if workers and equipment must occasionally move onto the shoulder.
Section 6G.07 Work on the Shoulder with No Encroachment
Support:
01 The provisions of this Section apply to short-term through long-term stationary operations.
Standard:
02 When paved shoulders having a width of 8 feet or more are closed, at least one advance warning sign shall be used. In addition, channelizing devices shall be used to close the shoulder in advance to delineate the beginning of the work space and direct motor vehicle traffic to remain within the traveled way.
Guidance:
03 (DE Revision) When paved shoulders having a width of 8 feet or more are closed on interstates, freeways, and expressways, road users should be warned about potential disabled vehicles that cannot get off the traveled way. An initial general warning sign, such as ROAD WORK AHEAD (W20-1), should be used, followed by a RIGHT or LEFT SHOULDER CLOSED (W21-5a) sign. Where the downstream end of the shoulder closure extends beyond the distance that can be perceived by road users, a supplementary plaque bearing the message NEXT XX FEET (W16-4P) or MILES (W7-3aP) should be placed below the SHOULDER CLOSED (W21-5a) sign. On multi-lane, divided highways, signs advising of shoulder work or the condition of the shoulder should be placed only on the side of the affected shoulder.
04 When an improved shoulder is closed on a high-speed roadway, it should be treated as a closure of a portion of the road system because road users expect to be able to use it in emergencies. Road users should be given ample advance warning that shoulders are closed for use as refuge areas throughout a specified length of the approaching TTC zone. The sign(s) should read SHOULDER CLOSED (W21-5a) with distances indicated. The work space on the shoulder should be closed off by a taper or channelizing devices with a length of 1/3 L using the formulas in Tables 6C-3 and 6C-4.
05 When the shoulder is not occupied but work has adversely affected its condition, the LOW SHOULDER (W8-9) or SOFT SHOULDER (W8-4) sign should be used, as appropriate.
06 Where the condition extends over a distance in excess of 1 mile, the sign should be repeated at 1-mile intervals.
Option:
07 In addition, a supplementary plaque bearing the message NEXT XX MILES (W7-3aP) may be used. Temporary traffic barriers may be needed to inhibit encroachment of errant vehicles into the work space and to protect workers.
Standard:
08 When used for shoulder work, arrow boards shall operate only in the caution mode.
Support:
09 (DE Revision) The typical applications for stationary work operations on shoulders are shown in Figures 6H-3 and 6H-3A. Short duration or mobile work on shoulders is shown in Figures 6H-4 and 6H-4A. Work on interstate, freeway, and expressway shoulders is shown in Figures 6H-5 and 6H-5B.
Section 6G.08 Work on the Shoulder with Minor Encroachment
Support:
01 Chapter 6D and Sections 6F.74 and 6G.05 contain additional information regarding the steps to follow when pedestrian or bicycle facilities are affected by the worksite.
Guidance:
02 When work takes up part of a lane, vehicular traffic volumes, vehicle mix (buses, trucks, cars, and bicycles), speed, and capacity should be analyzed to determine whether the affected lane should be closed. Unless the lane encroachment permits a remaining lane width of 10 feet, the lane should be closed.
03 Truck off-tracking should be considered when determining whether the minimum lane width of 10 feet is adequate.
Option:
04 A lane width of 9 feet may be used for short-term stationary work on low-volume, low-speed roadways when vehicular traffic does not include longer and wider heavy commercial vehicles.
Support:
05 (DE Revision) Figure 6H-6 illustrates a method for handling vehicular traffic where the stationary or short duration work space encroaches slightly into the traveled way along a low-volume roadway with a posted speed limit or 85th-percentile speed of 40 mph or less.
Section 6G.09 Work Within the Median
Support:
01 Chapter 6D and Sections 6F.74 and 6G.05 contain additional information regarding the steps to follow when pedestrian or bicycle facilities are affected by the worksite.
Guidance:
02 (DE Revision) If work in the median of a divided highway is within 10 feet from the edge of the traveled way for either direction of travel, TTC should be used through the use of advance warning signs and channelizing devices.
Section 6G.10 Work Within the Traveled Way of a Two-Lane Highway
Support:
01 Chapter 6D and Sections 6F.74 and 6G.05 contain additional information regarding the steps to follow when pedestrian or bicycle facilities are affected by the worksite.
02 (DE Revision) Detour signs are used to direct road users onto another roadway. At diversions, road users are directed onto a temporary roadway or alignment placed within or adjacent to the right-of-way. Typical applications for detouring or diverting road users on two-lane highways are shown in Figures 6H-7 and 6H-20. Figure 6H-7 illustrates the controls around an area where a section of roadway has been closed and a diversion has been constructed. Channelizing devices and pavement markings are used to indicate the transition to the temporary roadway.
Guidance:
03 When a detour is long, Detour (M4-8, M4-9) signs should be installed to remind and reassure road users periodically that they are still successfully following the detour.
04 (DE Revision) When an entire roadway is closed, as illustrated in Figure 6H-20, a detour should be provided and road users should be warned in advance of the closure. If local road users are allowed to use the roadway up to the closure, the ROAD CLOSED AHEAD, LOCAL TRAFFIC ONLY (R11-3a) sign should be used. The portion of the road open to local road users should have adequate signing, marking, and delineation.
05 (DE Revision) Detours should be signed so that road users will be able to traverse the entire detour route and back to the original roadway as shown in Figure 6H-20.
Support:
06 Techniques for controlling vehicular traffic under one-lane, two-way conditions are described in Section 6C.10.
Option:
07 Flaggers may be used as shown in Figure 6H-10.
08 (DE Revision) STOP/YIELD sign control may be used on roads with low traffic volumes as shown in Figures 6H-11 and 6H-11A. Where the opposite shoulder is suitable for carrying vehicular traffic and of adequate width, lanes may be shifted along two-lane roads with low traffic volumes as shown in Figure 6H-11B.
09 A temporary traffic control signal may be used as shown in Figure 6H-12.
Section 6G.11 Work Within the Traveled Way of an Urban Street
Support:
01 Chapter 6D and Sections 6F.74 and 6G.05 contain additional information regarding the steps to follow when pedestrian or bicycle facilities are affected by the worksite.
02 In urban TTC zones, decisions are needed on how to control vehicular traffic, such as how many lanes are required, whether any turns need to be prohibited at intersections, and how to maintain access to business, industrial, and residential areas.
03 Pedestrian traffic needs separate attention. Chapter 6D contains information regarding pedestrian movements near TTC zones.
Standard:
04 If the TTC zone affects the movement of bicyclists, adequate access to the roadway or shared-use paths shall be provided (see Part 9).
05 Where transit stops are affected or relocated because of work activity, both pedestrian and vehicular access to the affected or relocated transit stops shall be provided.
Guidance:
06 If a designated bicycle route is closed because of the work being done, a signed alternate route should be provided. Bicyclists should not be directed onto the path used by pedestrians.
07 Worksites within the intersection should be protected against inadvertent pedestrian incursion by providing detectable channelizing devices.
Support:
08 Utility work takes place both within and outside the roadway to construct and maintain services such as power, gas, light, water, or telecommunications. Operations often involve intersections, since that is where many of the network junctions occur. The work force is usually small, only a few vehicles are involved, and the number and types of TTC devices placed in the TTC zone is usually minimal.
Standard:
09 All TTC devices shall be retroreflective or illuminated if utility work is performed during nighttime hours.
Guidance:
10 As discussed under short-duration projects, however, the reduced number of devices in utility work zones should be offset by the use of high-visibility devices, such as high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights on work vehicles or high-level warning devices.
Support:
11 (DE Revision) Figures 6H-6, 6H-10, 6H-15, 6H-18, 6H-21, 6H-23, and 6H-33 are examples of typical applications for utility operations. Other typical applications might apply as well.
Section 6G.12 Work Within the Traveled Way of a Multi-Lane, Non-Access Controlled Highway
Support:
01 Chapter 6D and Sections 6F.74 and 6G.05 contain additional information regarding the steps to follow when pedestrian or bicycle facilities are affected by the worksite.
02 Work on multi-lane (two or more lanes of moving motor vehicle traffic in one direction) highways is divided into right-lane closures, left-lane closures, interior-lane closures, multiple-lane closures, and closures on five-lane roadways.
Standard:
03 When a lane is closed on a multi-lane road for other than a mobile operation, a transition area containing a merging taper shall be used.
Guidance:
04 When justified by an engineering study, temporary traffic barriers (see Section 6F.70) should be used to prevent incursions of errant vehicles into hazardous areas or work space.
Support:
05 Figure 6H-34 illustrates a lane closure in which temporary traffic barriers are used.
Option:
06 When the right lane is closed, TTC similar to that shown in Figure 6H-33 may be used for undivided or divided four-lane roads.
Guidance:
07 If morning and evening peak hour vehicular traffic volumes in the two directions are uneven and the greater volume is on the side where the work is being done in the right-hand lane, consideration should be given to closing the inside lane for opposing vehicular traffic and making the lane available to the side with heavier vehicular traffic, as shown in Figure 6H-31.
08 If the larger vehicular traffic volume changes to the opposite direction at a different time of the day, the TTC should be changed to allow two lanes for opposing vehicular traffic by moving the devices from the opposing lane to the center line. When it is necessary to create a temporary center line that is not consistent with the pavement markings, channelizing devices should be used and closely spaced.
08A (DE Revision) Figure 6H-31 should not be used along roadways with a posted speed limit or 85th-percentile speed greater than 40 mph.
Option:
09 When closing a left lane on a multi-lane undivided road, as vehicular traffic flow permits, the two interior lanes may be closed, as shown in Figure 6H-30, to provide drivers and workers additional lateral clearance and to provide access to the work space.
Guidance:
09A (DE Revision) Figure 6H-30 should not be used along roadways with a posted speed limit or 85th-percentile speed greater than 40 mph.
Standard:
10 When only the left lane is closed on undivided roads, channelizing devices shall be placed along the center line as well as along the adjacent lane.
Guidance:
11 When an interior lane is closed, an adjacent lane should also be considered for closure to provide additional space for vehicles and materials and to facilitate the movement of equipment within the work space.
12 When multiple lanes in one direction are closed, a capacity analysis should be made to determine the number of lanes needed to accommodate motor vehicle traffic needs. Vehicular traffic should be moved over one lane at a time. As shown in Figure 6H-37, the tapers should be separated by a distance of 2L, with L being determined by the formulas in Tables 6C-3 and 6C-4.
Option:
13 If operating speeds are 40 mph or less and the space approaching the work area does not permit moving traffic over one lane at a time, a single continuous taper may be used.
Standard:
14 When a directional roadway is closed, inapplicable WRONG WAY signs and markings, and other existing traffic control devices at intersections within the temporary two-lane, two-way operations section shall be covered, removed, or obliterated.
Option:
15 When half the road is closed on an undivided highway, both directions of vehicular traffic may be accommodated as shown in Figure 6H-32. When both interior lanes are closed, temporary traffic controls may be used as provided in Figure 6H-30. When a roadway must be closed on a divided highway, a median crossover may be used (see Section 6G.16).
Support:
16 TTC for lane closures on five-lane roads is similar to other multi-lane undivided roads. Figure 6H-32 can be adapted for use on five-lane roads. Figure 6H-35 can be used on a five-lane road for short duration and mobile operations.
Section 6G.13 Work Within the Traveled Way at an Intersection
Support:
01 Chapter 6D and Sections 6F.74 and 6G.05 contain additional information regarding the steps to follow when pedestrian or bicycle facilities are affected by the worksite.
02 The typical applications for intersections are classified according to the location of the work space with respect to the intersection area (as defined by the extension of the curb or edge lines). The three classifications are near side, far side, and in-the-intersection. Work spaces often extend into more than one portion of the intersection. For example, work in one quadrant often creates a near-side work space on one street and a far-side work space on the cross street. In such instances, an appropriate TTC plan is obtained by combining features shown in two or more of the intersection and pedestrian typical applications.
03 TTC zones in the vicinity of intersections might block movements and interfere with normal road user flows. Such conflicts frequently occur at more complex signalized intersections having such features as traffic signal heads over particular lanes, lanes allocated to specific movements, multiple signal phases, signal detectors for actuated control, and accessible pedestrian signals and detectors.
Guidance:
04 The effect of the work upon signal operation should be considered, and temporary corrective actions should be taken, if necessary, such as revising signal phasing and/or timing to provide adequate capacity, maintaining or adjusting signal detectors, and relocating signal heads to provide adequate visibility as described in Part 4.
Standard:
05 When work will occur near an intersection where operational, capacity, or pedestrian accessibility problems are anticipated, the highway agency having jurisdiction shall be contacted.
Guidance:
06 For work at an intersection, advance warning signs, devices, and markings should be used on all cross streets, as appropriate. The typical applications depict urban intersections on arterial streets. Where the posted speed limit, the off-peak 85th-percentile speed prior to the work starting, or the anticipated speed exceeds 40 mph, additional warning signs should be used in the advance warning area.
07 Pedestrian crossings near TTC sites should be separated from the worksite by appropriate barriers that maintain the accessibility and detectability for pedestrians with disabilities.
Support:
08 Near-side work spaces, as depicted in Figure 6H-21, are simply handled as a midblock lane closure. A problem that might occur with near-side lane closure is a reduction in capacity, which during certain hours of operation could result in congestion and backups.
Option:
09 When near-side work spaces are used, an exclusive turn lane may be used for through vehicular traffic.
10 Where space is restricted in advance of near-side work spaces, as with short block spacings, two warning signs may be used in the advance warning area, and a third action-type warning or a regulatory sign (such as Keep Left) may be placed within the transition area.
Support:
11 (DE Revision) Far-side work spaces, as depicted in Figure 6H-23, involve additional treatment because road users typically enter the activity area by straight-through and left- or right-turning movements.
Guidance:
12 When a lane through an intersection must be closed on the far side, it should also be closed on the near-side approach to preclude merging movements within the intersection.
Option:
13 If there are a significant number of vehicles turning from a near-side lane that is closed on the far side, the near-side lane may be converted to an exclusive turn lane.
Support:
14 (DE Revision) Figure 6H-27 provides guidance on applicable procedures for work performed within the intersection.
Option:
15 (DE Revision) If the work is within the intersection, any of the following strategies may be used:
A. A small work space so that road users can move around it;
B. Flaggers or uniformed law enforcement officers to direct road users, as shown in Figure 6H-27;
C. Work in stages so the work space is kept to a minimum; and
D. Road closures or upstream diversions to reduce road user volumes.
Guidance:
16 Depending on road user conditions, a flagger(s) and/or a uniformed law enforcement officer(s) should be used to control road users.
Section 6G.14 Work Within the Traveled Way of an Interstate, Freeway, or Expressway
Support:
01 Problems of TTC might occur under the special conditions encountered where vehicular traffic must be moved through or around TTC zones on high-speed, high-volume roadways. Although the general principles outlined in the previous Sections of this Manual are applicable to all types of highways, high-speed, access-controlled highways need special attention in order to accommodate vehicular traffic while also protecting road users and workers. The road user volumes, road vehicle mix (buses, trucks, cars, and bicycles, if permitted), and speed of vehicles on these facilities require that careful TTC procedures be implemented, for example, to induce critical merging maneuvers well in advance of work spaces and in a manner that creates minimum turbulence and delay in the vehicular traffic stream. These situations often require more conspicuous devices than specified for normal rural highway or urban street use. However, the same important basic considerations of uniformity and standardization of general principles apply for all roadways.
02 Work under high-speed, high-volume vehicular traffic on a controlled access highway is complicated by the roadway design and operational features. The presence of a median that establishes separate roadways for directional vehicular traffic flow might prohibit the closing of one of the roadways or the diverting of vehicular traffic to the other roadway. Lack of access to and from adjacent roadways prohibits rerouting of vehicular traffic away from the work space in many cases. Other conditions exist where work must be limited to night hours, thereby necessitating increased use of warning lights, illumination of work spaces, and advance warning systems.
03 (DE Revision) TTC for a typical lane closure on a divided highway is shown in Figure 6H-33. Temporary traffic controls for short duration and mobile operations on multi-lane, divided highways are shown in Figures 6H-35 and 6H-35A. Mobile striping operations on multi-lane, divided highways are shown in Figures 6H-35B and 6H-35C and mobile striping operations on interstates, freeways, and expressways are shown in Figures 6H-35D, 6H-35E, 6H-35F, and 6H-35G. A typical application for shifting vehicular traffic lanes around a work space is shown in Figure 6H-36. TTC for multiple and interior lane closures on a multi-lane, divided highway is shown in Figures 6H-37 and 6H-38.
Guidance:
04 (DE Revision) Closing an interior lane only on a directional roadway with three or more lanes is strongly discouraged because of worker safety and driver expectancy concerns associated with permitting high-speed traffic on both sides of the work space. When an interior lane is closed, an adjacent lane should also be considered for closure as shown in Figure 6H-37. When the capacity of the other lanes is needed based on an engineering study, the method shown in Figure 6H-38 should be used.
Section 6G.15 Two-Lane, Two-Way Traffic on One Roadway of a Normally Divided Highway
Support:
01 Two-lane, two-way operation on one roadway of a normally divided highway is a typical procedure that requires special consideration in the planning, design, and work phases, because unique operational problems (for example, increasing the risk of head-on crashes) can arise with the two-lane, two-way operation.
Standard:
02 When two-lane, two-way traffic control must be maintained on one roadway of a normally divided highway, opposing vehicular traffic shall be separated with either temporary traffic barriers (concrete safety-shape or approved alternate), channelizing devices, or a temporary raised island throughout the length of the two-way operation. The use of markings and complementary signing, by themselves, shall not be used.
Support:
03 Figure 6H-39 shows the procedure for two-lane, two-way operation. Treatments for entrance and exit ramps within the two-way roadway segment of this type of work are shown in Figures 6H-40 and 6H-41.
Section 6G.16 Crossovers
Guidance:
01 The following are considered good guiding principles for the design of crossovers:
A. Tapers for lane drops should be separated from the crossovers, as shown in Figure 6H-39.
B. Crossovers should be designed for speeds no lower than 10 mph below the posted speed, the off-peak 85th-percentile speed prior to the work starting, or the anticipated operating speed of the roadway, unless unusual site conditions require that a lower design speed be used.
C. A good array of channelizing devices, delineators, and full-length, properly placed pavement markings should be used to provide drivers with a clearly defined travel path.
D. The design of the crossover should accommodate all vehicular traffic, including trucks and buses.
Support:
02 Temporary traffic barriers and the excessive use of TTC devices cannot compensate for poor geometric and roadway cross-section design of crossovers.
Section 6G.17 Interchanges
Guidance:
01 Access to interchange ramps on limited-access highways should be maintained even if the work space is in the lane adjacent to the ramps. Access to exit ramps should be clearly marked and delineated with channelizing devices. For long-term projects, conflicting pavement markings should be removed and new ones placed. Early coordination with officials having jurisdiction over the affected cross streets and providing emergency services should occur before ramp closings.
Option:
02 If access is not possible, ramps may be closed by using signs and Type 3 Barricades. As the work space changes, the access area may be changed, as shown in Figure 6H-42. A TTC zone in the exit ramp may be handled as shown in Figure 6H-43.
03 (DE Revision) When a work space interferes with an entrance ramp, a lane may need to be closed on the multi-lane, divided highway (see Figure 6H-44). A TTC zone in the entrance ramp may require shifting ramp vehicular traffic (see Figure 6H-44).
Section 6G.18 Work in the Vicinity of a Grade Crossing
Standard:
01 (DE Revision) When grade crossings exist either within or in the vicinity of a TTC zone, lane restrictions, flagging, or other operations shall not create conditions where vehicles can be queued across the tracks. If the queuing of vehicles across the tracks cannot be avoided, a uniformed law enforcement officer or flagger shall be provided at the upstream side of the crossing to prevent vehicles from stopping within the grade crossing, considered to be 50 feet on either side of the closest and farthest rail, even if automatic warning devices are in place.
Support:
02 Figure 6H-46 shows work in the vicinity of a grade crossing.
03 Section 8A.08 contains additional information regarding temporary traffic control zones in the vicinity of grade crossings.
Guidance:
04 Early coordination with the railroad company or light rail transit agency should occur before work starts.
Section 6G.19 Temporary Traffic Control During Nighttime Hours
Support:
01 Chapter 6D and Sections 6F.74 and 6G.05 contain additional information regarding the steps to follow when pedestrian or bicycle facilities are affected by the worksite.
02 Conducting highway construction and maintenance activities during night hours could provide an advantage when traditional daytime traffic control strategies cannot achieve an acceptable balance between worker and public safety, traffic and community impact, and constructability. The two basic advantages of working at night are reduced traffic congestion and less involvement with business activities. However, the two basic conditions that must normally be met for night work to offer any advantage are reduced traffic volumes and easy set up and removal of the traffic control patterns on a nightly basis.
03 Shifting work activities to night hours, when traffic volumes are lower and normal business is less active, might offer an advantage in some cases, as long as the necessary work can be completed and the worksite restored to essentially normal operating conditions to carry the higher traffic volume during non-construction hours.
04 Although working at night might offer advantages, it also includes safety issues. Reduced visibility inherent in night work impacts the performance of both drivers and workers. Because traffic volumes are lower and congestion is minimized, speeds are often higher at night necessitating greater visibility at a time when visibility is reduced. Finally, the incidence of impaired (alcohol or drugs), fatigued, or drowsy drivers might be higher at night.
05 Working at night also involves other factors, including construction productivity and quality, social impacts, economics, and environmental issues. A decision to perform construction or maintenance activities at night normally involves some consideration of the advantages to be gained compared to the safety and other issues that might be impacted.
Guidance:
06 Considering the safety issues inherent to night work, consideration should be given to enhancing traffic controls (see Section 6G.04) to provide added visibility and driver guidance, and increased protection for workers.
07 In addition to the enhancements listed in Section 6G.04, consideration should be given to providing additional lights and retroreflective markings to workers, work vehicles, and equipment.
Option:
08 Where reduced traffic volumes at night make it feasible, the entire roadway may be closed by detouring traffic to alternate facilities, thus removing the traffic risk from the activity area.
Guidance:
09 Consideration should be given to stationing uniformed law enforcement officers and lighted patrol cars at night work locations where there is a concern that high speeds or impaired drivers might result in undue risks for workers or other drivers.
Standard:
10 (DE Revision) Except in emergency situations, flagger stations shall be illuminated at night with a minimum average horizontal luminance of 50 lux (5 foot candles).
Guidance:
10A (DE Revision) For flagging operations at night, a horizontal luminance of 50 lux (5 foot candles) can typically be achieved by a light plant featuring four 1,000 watt metal halide light fixtures, positioned within 15 feet of the flagging station at a minimum mounting height of 15 feet. At a minimum, one light plant is to be dedicated to the flagger operation. Light fixtures are to be positioned so they do not to cause glare problems for vehicles approaching from any direction.
Support:
11 Desired illumination levels vary depending upon the nature of the task involved. An average horizontal luminance of 5 foot candles can be adequate for general activities. An average horizontal luminance of 10 foot candles can be adequate for activities around equipment. Tasks requiring high levels of precision and extreme care can require an average horizontal luminance of 20 foot candles.
Section 6G.20 Vertical Difference
Support:
01 (DE Revision) A vertical difference is created whenever a difference in grade of more than 1 inch exists:
A. Between the traveled way and an adjacent area,
B. Across a traveled way, or
C. Along or between traveled ways
02 (DE Revision) Possible causes of vertical differences include, but are not limited to, milling or excavation for paving, repaving lifts, and utility operations.
Guidance:
03 (DE Revision) Operations should be sequenced so vertical differences greater than 2 inches do not exist across a traveled way open to traffic or between adjacent traveled ways open to traffic.
Standard:
04 (DE Revision) Vertical difference treatments shall be based on the criteria indicated in Table 6G-1.
05 (DE Revision) Where a fillet of wedge material is used at the edge of pavement in accordance with Table 6G-1, pavement millings, or a similar suitable material, shall be used for the wedge material.
Guidance:
06 (DE Revision) Where a fillet of wedge material is used between a traveled way and pavement box in accordance with Table 6G-1, base course material should be used for the wedge material and should be placed at no greater than the slope specified in Table 6G-1. The base course material should be compacted after placement.
 
 
1 – Per Section 1A.13, the traveled way is defined as the portion of the roadway for the movement of vehicles, exclusive of the shoulders, berms, sidewalks, and parking lanes
2 – Channelizing devices are not required if the vertical difference is located behind guardrail, barrier, or vertical curb
 
Section 6G.21 Storage of Equipment
Standard:
01 (DE Revision) Each storage area shall be treated as a roadside obstacle as indicated in Table 6G-2.
02 (DE Revision) Vehicles and equipment shall enter and exit the work area in the same direction as adjacent traffic. The contractor’s vehicle(s) and equipment shall enter and exit the roadway at interchanges or unrestricted crossovers that are open to public use. The contractor’s vehicle(s) and equipment shall not U-turn across medians or at crossovers restricted for authorized and emergency vehicles only.
 
 
 
Posted Speed Limit or 85th-Percentile Speed
 
 
 
CHAPTER 6H. TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
Section 6H.01 Typical Applications
Support:
01 Chapter 6G contains discussions of typical TTC activities. This Chapter presents typical applications for a variety of situations commonly encountered. While not every situation is addressed, the information illustrated can generally be adapted to a broad range of conditions. In many instances, an appropriate TTC plan is achieved by combining features from various typical applications. For example, work at an intersection might present a near-side work zone for one street and a far-side work zone for the other street. These treatments are found in two different typical applications, while a third typical application shows how to handle pedestrian crosswalk closures. For convenience in using the typical application diagrams, Tables 6C-1 and 6C-4 are reproduced in this Chapter as Tables 6H-3 and 6H-4, respectively.
02 Procedures for establishing TTC zones vary with such conditions as road configuration, location of the work, work activity, duration of work, road user volumes, road vehicle mix (buses, trucks, cars, motorcycles, and bicycles), and road user speeds.
03 In general, the procedures illustrated represent minimum solutions for the situations depicted. Except for the notes (which are clearly classified using headings as being Standard, Guidance, Option, or Support), the information presented in the typical applications can generally be regarded as Guidance.
Option:
04 Other devices may be added to supplement the devices and device spacing may be adjusted to provide additional reaction time or delineation. Fewer devices may be used based on field conditions.
Support:
05 Figures and tables found throughout Part 6 provide information for the development of TTC plans. Also, Table 6H-3 is used for the determination of sign spacing and other dimensions for various area and roadway types.
06 (DE Revision) Table 6H-1 is an index of the 63 typical applications. Typical applications are shown on the right-hand page with notes on the facing page to the left. The legend for the symbols used in the typical applications is provided in Table 6H-2. In many of the typical applications, sign spacings and other dimensions are indicated by letters using the criteria provided in Table 6H-3. The formulas for determining taper lengths are provided in Table 6H-4.
07 Most of the typical applications show TTC devices for only one direction.