Table of Contents Previous Next

Introduction


Authenticated PDF Version

Introduction
The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) is approved by the Federal Highway Administrator as the National Standard in accordance with Title 23 U.S. Code, Sections 109(d), 114(a), 217, 315, and 402(a), 23 CFR 655, and 49 CFR 1.48(b)(8), 1.48(b)(33), and 1.48(c)(2).
 
Addresses for Publications Referenced in the MUTCD
 
American Automobile Association (AAA)
1000 AAA Drive
Heathrow, FL 32746
www.aaa.com
800-222-4357
 
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
444 North Capitol Street, NW, Suite 249
Washington, DC 20001
www.transportation.org
202-624-5800
 
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
1819 L Street, NW, 6th Floor
Washington, DC 20036
www.ansi.org
202-293-8020
 
American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association (AREMA)
10003 Derekwood Lane, Suite 210
Lanham, MD 20706
www.arema.org
301-459-3200
 
Federal Highway Administration Report Center
Facsimile number: 814-239-2156
report.center@fhwa.dot.gov
 
Illuminating Engineering Society (IES)
120 Wall Street, Floor 17
New York, NY 10005
www.iesna.org
212-248-5000
 
Institute of Makers of Explosives
1120 19th Street, NW, Suite 310
Washington, DC 20036-3605
www.ime.org
202-429-9280
 
Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE)
1099 14th Street, NW, Suite 300 West
Washington, DC 20005-3438
www.ite.org
202-289-0222
 
International Organization for Standardization
1, ch. de la Voie-Creuse
Case Postale 56
CH-1211
Geneva 20, Switzerland
www.iso.ch
011-41-22-749-0111
 
International Safety Equipment Association (ISEA)
1901 North Moore Street, Suite 808
Arlington, VA 22209
www.safetyequipment.org
703-525-1695
 
National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordinances (NCUTLO)
107 South West Street, Suite 110
Alexandria, VA 22314
www.ncutlo.org
800-807-5290
 
National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)
1300 North 17th Street, Suite 1752
Rosslyn, VA 22209
www.nema.org
703-841-3200
 
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
U.S. Department of Labor
200 Constitution Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20210
www.osha.gov
800-321-6742
 
Transportation Research Board (TRB)
The National Academies
500 Fifth Street, NW
Washington, DC 20001
www.nas.edu/trb
202-334-3072
 
U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (The U.S. Access Board)
1331 F Street, NW, Suite 1000
Washington, DC 20004-1111
www.access-board.gov
202-272-0080
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(This Page Left Intentionally Blank)
 
 
2009 MANUAL ON UNIFORM TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES
LIST OF PARTS, CHAPTERS, AND SECTIONS
(DELAWARE REVISION)
INTRODUCTION
PART 1. GENERAL
CHAPTER 1A. GENERAL
Section 1A.01 Purpose of Traffic Control Devices 1A-1
Section 1A.02 Principles of Traffic Control Devices 1A-1
Section 1A.03 Design of Traffic Control Devices 1A-2
Section 1A.04 Placement and Operation of Traffic Control Devices 1A-2
Section 1A.05 Maintenance of Traffic Control Devices 1A-2
Section 1A.06 Uniformity of Traffic Control Devices 1A-2
Section 1A.07 Responsibility for Traffic Control Devices 1A-2
Section 1A.08 Authority for Placement of Traffic Control Devices 1A-3
Section 1A.09 Engineering Study and Engineering Judgment 1A-4
Section 1A.10 Interpretations, Experimentations, Changes, and Interim Approvals 1A-5
Section 1A.11 Relation to Other Publications 1A-9
Section 1A.12 Color Code 1A-12
Section 1A.13 Definitions of Headings, Words, and Phrases in this Manual 1A-12
Section 1A.14 Meanings of Acronyms and Abbreviations in this Manual 1A-26
Section 1A.15 Abbreviations Used on Traffic Control Devices 1A-27
PART 2. SIGNS
CHAPTER 2A. GENERAL
Section 2A.01 Function and Purpose of Signs 2A-1
Section 2A.02 Definitions 2A-1
Section 2A.03 Standardization of Application 2A-1
Section 2A.04 Excessive Use of Signs 2A-2
Section 2A.05 Classification of Signs 2A-2
Section 2A.06 Design of Signs 2A-2
Section 2A.07 Retroreflectivity and Illumination 2A-3
Section 2A.08 Maintaining Minimum Retroreflectivity 2A-5
Section 2A.09 Shapes 2A-6
Section 2A.10 Sign Colors 2A-7
Section 2A.11 Dimensions 2A-9
Section 2A.12 Symbols 2A-9
Section 2A.13 Word Messages 2A-10
Section 2A.14 Sign Borders 2A-11
Section 2A.15 Enhanced Conspicuity for Standard Signs 2A-12
Section 2A.16 Standardization of Location 2A-12
Section 2A.17 Overhead Sign Installations 2A-14
Section 2A.18 Mounting Height 2A-18
Section 2A.19 Lateral Offset 2A-19
Section 2A.20 Orientation 2A-20
Section 2A.21 Posts and Mountings 2A-20
Section 2A.22 Maintenance 2A-20
Section 2A.23 Median Opening Treatments for Divided Highways with Wide Medians 2A-20
CHAPTER 2B. REGULATORY SIGNS, BARRICADES, AND GATES
Section 2B.01 Application of Regulatory Signs 2B-1
Section 2B.02 Design of Regulatory Signs 2B-1
Section 2B.03 Size of Regulatory Signs 2B-1
Section 2B.04 Right-of-Way at Intersections 2B-7
Section 2B.05 STOP Sign (R1-1) and ALL WAY Plaque (R1-3P) 2B-9
Section 2B.06 STOP Sign Applications 2B-10
Section 2B.07 Multi-Way Stop Applications 2B-10
Section 2B.08 YIELD Sign (R1-2) 2B-11
Section 2B.09 YIELD Sign Applications 2B-11
Section 2B.10 STOP Sign or YIELD Sign Placement 2B-11
Section 2B.11 Yield Here To Pedestrians Signs and Stop Here For Pedestrians Signs (R1-5 Series) 2B-13
Section 2B.12 In-Street and Overhead Pedestrian Crossing Signs (R1-6, R1-6a, R1-9, and R1-9a) 2B-14
Section 2B.13 Speed Limit Sign (R2-1) 2B-16
Section 2B.14 Truck Speed Limit Plaque (R2-2P) 2B-18
Section 2B.15 Night Speed Limit Plaque (R2-3P) 2B-18
Section 2B.16 Minimum Speed Limit Plaque (R2-4P) 2B-18
Section 2B.17 Higher Fines Signs and Plaque (R2-6P, R2-10, and R2-11) 2B-18
Section 2B.18 Movement Prohibition Signs (R3-1 through R3-4, R3-18, and R3-27) 2B-19
Section 2B.19 Intersection Lane Control Signs (R3-5 through R3-8) 2B-21
Section 2B.20 Mandatory Movement Lane Control Signs (R3-5, R3-5a, R3-7, R3-20, and
R3-20-DE) 2B-23
Section 2B.21 Optional Movement Lane Control Sign (R3-6) 2B-24
Section 2B.22 Advance Intersection Lane Control Signs (R3-8 Series) 2B-24
Section 2B.23 RIGHT (LEFT) LANE MUST EXIT Sign (R3-33) 2B-25
Section 2B.24 Two-Way Left Turn Only Signs (R3-9a, R3-9b) 2B-25
Section 2B.25 BEGIN and END Plaques (R3-9cP, R3-9dP) 2B-25
Section 2B.26 Reversible Lane Control Signs (R3-9e through R3-9i) 2B-26
Section 2B.27 Jughandle Signs (R3-23, R3-24, R3-25, and R3-26 Series) 2B-28
Section 2B.28 DO NOT PASS Sign (R4-1) 2B-29
Section 2B.29 PASS WITH CARE Sign (R4-2) 2B-29
Section 2B.30 KEEP RIGHT EXCEPT TO PASS Sign (R4-16) and SLOWER TRAFFIC KEEP RIGHT
Sign (R4-3) 2B-35
Section 2B.31 TRUCKS KEEP RIGHT EXCEPT LEFT TURNS, NO TRUCKS LEFT LANE EXCEPT LEFT TURNS, and TRUCKS USE RIGHT LANE Signs (R4-3-DE, R4-3-DE1,
and R4-5) 2B-35
Section 2B.32 Keep Right and Keep Left Signs (R4-7, R4-8) 2B-36
Section 2B.33 STAY IN LANE Sign (R4-9) 2B-36
Section 2B.34 RUNAWAY VEHICLES ONLY Sign (R4-10) 2B-36
Section 2B.35 Slow Vehicle Turn-Out Signs (R4-12, R4-13, and R4-14) 2B-37
Section 2B.36 DO NOT DRIVE ON SHOULDER Sign (R4-17) and DO NOT PASS ON SHOULDER
Sign (R4-18) 2B-37
Section 2B.37 DO NOT ENTER Sign (R5-1) 2B-37
Section 2B.38 WRONG WAY Sign (R5-1a) 2B-38
Section 2B.39 Selective Exclusion Signs 2B-38
Section 2B.40 ONE WAY Signs (R6-1, R6-2) 2B-41
Section 2B.41 Wrong-Way Traffic Control at Interchange Ramps 2B-49
Section 2B.42 Divided Highway Crossing Signs (R6-3, R6-3a) 2B-52
Section 2B.43 Roundabout Directional Arrow Signs (R6-4, R6-4a, and R6-4b) 2B-52
Section 2B.44 Roundabout Circulation Plaque (R6-5P) 2B-53
Section 2B.45 Examples of Roundabout Signing 2B-53
Section 2B.46 Parking, Standing, and Stopping Signs (R7 and R8 Series) 2B-57
Section 2B.47 Design of Parking, Standing, and Stopping Signs 2B-60
Section 2B.48 Placement of Parking, Stopping, and Standing Signs 2B-62
Section 2B.49 Emergency Restriction Signs (R8-4, R8-7, R8-8) 2B-62
Section 2B.50 WALK ON LEFT FACING TRAFFIC and No Hitchhiking Signs (R9-1,
R9-4, R9-4a) 2B-63
Section 2B.51 Pedestrian Crossing Signs (R9-2, R9-3) 2B-65
Section 2B.52 Traffic Signal Pedestrian and Bicycle Actuation Signs (R10-1 through R10-4, and
R10-24 through R10-26) 2B-65
Section 2B.53 Traffic Signal Signs (R10-5 through R10-30) 2B-67
Section 2B.54 No Turn on Red Signs (R10-11 Series, R10-17a, and R10-30) 2B-69
Section 2B.55 Photo Enforced Signs and Plaques (R10-18, R10-18a, R10-19P, R10-19aP) 2B-69
Section 2B.56 Ramp Metering Signs (R10-28 and R10-29) 2B-70
Section 2B.57 KEEP OFF MEDIAN Sign (R11-1) 2B-71
Section 2B.58 ROAD CLOSED Sign (R11-2) and LOCAL TRAFFIC ONLY Signs (R11-3 Series,
R11-4) 2B-71
Section 2B.59 Weight Limit Signs (R12-1 through R12-5) 2B-72
Section 2B.60 Weigh Station Signs (R13 Series) 2B-72
Section 2B.61 TRUCK ROUTE Sign (R14-1) 2B-73
Section 2B.62 Hazardous Material Signs (R14-2, R14-3) 2B-73
Section 2B.63 National Network Signs (R14-4, R14-5) 2B-73
Section 2B.64 Headlight Use Signs (R16-5 through R16-11) 2B-74
Section 2B.65 FENDER BENDER Sign (R16-4) 2B-74
Section 2B.66 Seat Belt Symbol 2B-75
Section 2B.67 Barricades 2B-75
Section 2B.68 Gates 2B-75
Section 2B.69 MOVE OVER OR REDUCE SPEED FOR STOPPED EMERGENCY AND MAINTENANCE VEHICLES Sign (SR-1-18-DE) 2B-77
Section 2B.70 Engine Compression Brake Prohibition Sign (SR1-19-DE) 2B-77
Section 2B.71 Other Regulatory Signs (SR1-11-DE, SR1-12-DE, SR1-14-DE, SR1-15-DE) 2B-78
CHAPTER 2C. WARNING SIGNS AND OBJECT MARKERS
Section 2C.01 Function of Warning Signs 2C-1
Section 2C.02 Application of Warning Signs 2C-1
Section 2C.03 Design of Warning Signs 2C-1
Section 2C.04 Size of Warning Signs 2C-3
Section 2C.05 Placement of Warning Signs 2C-8
Section 2C.06 Horizontal Alignment Warning Signs 2C-8
Section 2C.07 Horizontal Alignment Signs (W1-1 through W1-5, W1-11, W1-15) 2C-10
Section 2C.08 Advisory Speed Plaque (W13-1P) 2C-13
Section 2C.09 Chevron Alignment Sign (W1-8) 2C-13
Section 2C.10 Combination Horizontal Alignment/Advisory Speed Signs (W1-1a, W1-2a) 2C-14
Section 2C.11 Combination Horizontal Alignment/Intersection Signs (W1-10 Series) 2C-15
Section 2C.12 One-Direction Large Arrow Sign (W1-6) 2C-15
Section 2C.13 Truck Rollover Warning Sign (W1-13) 2C-15
Section 2C.14 Advisory Exit and Ramp Speed Signs (W13-2 and W13-3) 2C-16
Section 2C.15 Combination Horizontal Alignment/Advisory Exit and Ramp Speed Signs (W13-6 and W13-7) 2C-16
Section 2C.16 Hill Signs (W7-1, W7-1a) 2C-18
Section 2C.17 Truck Escape Ramp Signs (W7-4 Series) 2C-19
Section 2C.18 HILL BLOCKS VIEW Sign (W7-6) 2C-19
Section 2C.19 ROAD NARROWS Sign (W5-1) 2C-19
Section 2C.20 NARROW BRIDGE Sign (W5-2) 2C-19
Section 2C.21 ONE LANE BRIDGE Sign (W5-3) 2C-20
Section 2C.22 Divided Highway Sign (W6-1) 2C-20
Section 2C.23 Divided Highway Ends Sign (W6-2) 2C-21
Section 2C.24 Freeway or Expressway Ends Signs (W19 Series) 2C-21
Section 2C.25 Double Arrow Sign (W12-1) 2C-21
Section 2C.26 DEAD END/NO OUTLET Signs (W14-1, W14-1a, W14-2, W14-2a) 2C-21
Section 2C.27 Low Clearance Signs (W12-2 and W12-2a) 2C-22
Section 2C.28 BUMP and DIP Signs (W8-1, W8-2) 2C-22
Section 2C.29 SPEED HUMP Sign (W17-1) 2C-24
Section 2C.30 PAVEMENT ENDS Sign (W8-3) 2C-24
Section 2C.31 Shoulder Signs (W8-4, W8-9, W8-17, W8-23, and W8-25) 2C-24
Section 2C.32 Surface Condition Signs (W8-5, W8-7, W8-8, W8-11, W8-13, and W8-14) 2C-25
Section 2C.33 Warning Signs and Plaques for Motorcyclists (W8-15, W8-15P, and W8-16) 2C-25
Section 2C.34 NO CENTER LINE Sign (W8-12) 2C-25
Section 2C.35 Weather Condition Signs (W8-18, W8-19, W8-21, and W8-22) 2C-25
Section 2C.36 Advance Traffic Control Signs (W3-1, W3-2, W3-3, W3-3-DE, W3-3P-DE, W3-4) 2C-26
Section 2C.37 Advance Ramp Control Signal Signs (W3-7 and W3-8) 2C-27
Section 2C.38 Reduced Speed Limit Ahead Signs (W3-5, W3-5-DE) 2C-27
Section 2C.39 DRAW BRIDGE Sign (W3-6) 2C-28
Section 2C.40 Merge Signs (W4-1, W4-5) 2C-28
Section 2C.41 Added Lane Signs (W4-3, W4-6) 2C-29
Section 2C.42 Lane Ends Signs (W4-2, W9-1, W9-2, W9-2-DE) 2C-29
Section 2C.43 RIGHT (LEFT) LANE EXIT ONLY AHEAD Sign (W9-7) 2C-30
Section 2C.44 Two-Way Traffic Sign (W6-3) 2C-30
Section 2C.45 NO PASSING ZONE Sign (W14-3) 2C-30
Section 2C.46 Intersection Warning Signs (W2-1 through W2-8, W21-9-DE, W21-9P-DE,
W21-10-DE) 2C-31
Section 2C.47 Two-Direction Large Arrow Sign (W1-7) 2C-32
Section 2C.48 Traffic Signal Signs (W25-1, W25-2) 2C-32
Section 2C.49 Vehicular Traffic Warning Signs (W8-6, W11-1, W11-5, W11-5a, W11-8, W11-8-DE, W11-10, W11-10-DE, W11-11, W11-12P, W11-12-DE, W11-14, W11-15, W11-15a,
W11-24aP-DE and W11-25-DE) 2C-32
Section 2C.50 Non-Vehicular Warning Signs (W11-2, W11-3, W11-4, W11-6, W11-7, W11-9, W11-11DE, W11-16 through W11-22, W11-23-DE, W21-11-DE, W21-11P-DE, W21-14-DE,
and W21-15-DE) 2C-34
Section 2C.51 Playground Sign (W15-1) 2C-35
Section 2C.52 NEW TRAFFIC PATTERN AHEAD Sign (W23-2) 2C-36
Section 2C.53 Use of Supplemental Warning Plaques 2C-37
Section 2C.54 Design of Supplemental Warning Plaques 2C-38
Section 2C.55 Distance Plaques (W16-2 Series, W16-3 Series, W16-4P, W7-3aP) 2C-38
Section 2C.56 Supplemental Arrow Plaques (W16-5P, W16-6P) 2C-38
Section 2C.57 Hill-Related Plaques (W7-2 Series, W7-3 Series) 2C-38
Section 2C.58 Advance Street Name Plaque (W16-8P, W16-8aP) 2C-38
Section 2C.59 CROSS TRAFFIC DOES NOT STOP Plaque (W4-4P) 2C-39
Section 2C.60 SHARE THE ROAD Plaque (W16-1P) 2C-39
Section 2C.61 Photo Enforced Plaque (W16-10P) 2C-39
Section 2C.62 NEW and NEW TRAFFIC PATTERN Plaques (W16-15P and W23-2P-DE) 2C-39
Section 2C.62A STRICTLY ENFORCED Plaque (W21-12P-DE) 2C-40
Section 2C.63 Object Marker Design and Placement Height 2C-40
Section 2C.64 Object Markers for Obstructions Within the Roadway 2C-41
Section 2C.65 Object Markers for Obstructions Adjacent to the Roadway 2C-42
Section 2C.66 Object Markers for Ends of Roadways 2C-42
CHAPTER 2D. GUIDE SIGNS—CONVENTIONAL ROADS
Section 2D.01 Scope of Conventional Road Guide Sign Standards 2D-1
Section 2D.02 Application 2D-1
Section 2D.03 Color, Retroreflection, and Illumination 2D-1
Section 2D.04 Size of Signs 2D-2
Section 2D.05 Lettering Style 2D-3
Section 2D.06 Size of Lettering 2D-4
Section 2D.07 Amount of Legend 2D-4
Section 2D.08 Arrows 2D-5
Section 2D.09 Numbered Highway Systems 2D-7
Section 2D.10 Route Signs and Auxiliary Signs 2D-7
Section 2D.11 Design of Route Signs 2D-7
Section 2D.12 Design of Route Sign Auxiliaries 2D-9
Section 2D.13 Junction Auxiliary Sign (M2-1) 2D-10
Section 2D.14 Combination Junction Sign (M2-2) 2D-10
Section 2D.15 Cardinal Direction Auxiliary Signs (M3-1 through M3-4) 2D-11
Section 2D.16 Auxiliary Signs for Alternative Routes (M4 Series) 2D-11
Section 2D.17 ALTERNATE Auxiliary Signs (M4-1, M4-1a) 2D-11
Section 2D.18 BY-PASS Auxiliary Sign (M4-2) 2D-11
Section 2D.19 BUSINESS Auxiliary Sign (M4-3) 2D-11
Section 2D.20 TRUCK Auxiliary Sign (M4-4) 2D-11
Section 2D.21 TO Auxiliary Sign (M4-5) 2D-12
Section 2D.22 END Auxiliary Sign (M4-6) 2D-12
Section 2D.23 BEGIN Auxiliary Sign (M4-14) 2D-12
Section 2D.24 TEMPORARY Auxiliary Signs (M4-7, M4-7a) 2D-12
Section 2D.25 Temporary Detour and Auxiliary Signs 2D-12
Section 2D.26 Advance Turn Arrow Auxiliary Signs (M5-1, M5-2, and M5-3) 2D-13
Section 2D.27 Lane Designation Auxiliary Signs (M5-4, M5-5, and M5-6) 2D-13
Section 2D.28 Directional Arrow Auxiliary Signs (M6 Series) 2D-14
Section 2D.29 Route Sign Assemblies 2D-14
Section 2D.30 Junction Assembly 2D-19
Section 2D.31 Advance Route Turn Assembly 2D-19
Section 2D.32 Directional Assembly 2D-20
Section 2D.33 Combination Lane-Use/Destination Overhead Guide Sign (D15-1) 2D-20
Section 2D.34 Confirming or Reassurance Assemblies 2D-21
Section 2D.35 Trailblazer Assembly 2D-21
Section 2D.36 Destination and Distance Signs 2D-22
Section 2D.37 Destination Signs (D1 Series) 2D-22
Section 2D.38 Destination Signs at Circular Intersections 2D-23
Section 2D.39 Destination Signs at Jughandles 2D-27
Section 2D.40 Location of Destination Signs 2D-27
Section 2D.41 Distance Signs (D2 Series) 2D-27
Section 2D.42 Location of Distance Signs 2D-28
Section 2D.43 Street Name Signs (D3-1, D3-1-DEL, D3-1a) 2D-28
Section 2D.44 Advance Street Name Signs (D3-2) 2D-30
Section 2D.45 Signing on Conventional Roads on Approaches to Interchanges 2D-31
Section 2D.46 Freeway Entrance Signs (D13-3 and D13-3a) 2D-39
Section 2D.47 Parking Area Guide Sign (D4-1) 2D-39
Section 2D.48 PARK - RIDE Sign (D4-2) 2D-39
Section 2D.49 Weigh Station Signing (D8 Series) 2D-40
Section 2D.50 Community Wayfinding Signs 2D-42
Section 2D.51 Truck, Passing, or Climbing Lane Signs (D17-1 and D17-2) 2D-48
Section 2D.52 Slow Vehicle Turn-Out Sign (D17-7) 2D-48
Section 2D.53 Signing of Named Highways 2D-49
Section 2D.54 Crossover Signs (D13-1 and D13-2) 2D-49
Section 2D.55 National Scenic Byways Signs (D6-4, D6-4a) 2D-49
CHAPTER 2E. GUIDE SIGNS—FREEWAYS AND EXPRESSWAYS
Section 2E.01 Scope of Freeway and Expressway Guide Sign Standards 2E-1
Section 2E.02 Freeway and Expressway Signing Principles 2E-1
Section 2E.03 Guide Sign Classification 2E-1
Section 2E.04 General 2E-2
Section 2E.05 Color of Guide Signs 2E-2
Section 2E.06 Retroreflection or Illumination 2E-2
Section 2E.07 Characteristics of Urban Signing 2E-2
Section 2E.08 Characteristics of Rural Signing 2E-3
Section 2E.09 Signing of Named Highways 2E-3
Section 2E.10 Amount of Legend on Guide Signs 2E-3
Section 2E.11 Number of Signs at an Overhead Installation and Sign Spreading 2E-3
Section 2E.12 Pull-Through Signs (E6-2, E6-2a) 2E-4
Section 2E.13 Designation of Destinations 2E-5
Section 2E.14 Size and Style of Letters and Signs 2E-5
Section 2E.15 Interline and Edge Spacing 2E-6
Section 2E.16 Sign Borders 2E-6
Section 2E.17 Abbreviations 2E-15
Section 2E.18 Symbols 2E-15
Section 2E.19 Arrows for Interchange Guide Signs 2E-15
Section 2E.20 Signing for Option Lanes at Splits and Multi-Lane Exits 2E-16
Section 2E.21 Design of Overhead Arrow-per-Lane Guide Signs for Option Lanes 2E-16
Section 2E.22 Design of Freeway and Expressway Diagrammatic Guide Signs for Option Lanes 2E-16
Section 2E.23 Signing for Intermediate and Minor Interchange Multi-Lane Exits with
an Option Lane 2E-26
Section 2E.24 Signing for Interchange Lane Drops 2E-29
Section 2E.25 Overhead Sign Installations 2E-29
Section 2E.26 Lateral Offset 2E-30
Section 2E.27 Route Signs and Trailblazer Assemblies 2E-34
Section 2E.28 Eisenhower Interstate System Signs (M1-10, M1-10a) 2E-35
Section 2E.29 Signs for Intersections at Grade 2E-35
Section 2E.30 Interchange Guide Signs 2E-35
Section 2E.31 Interchange Exit Numbering 2E-36
Section 2E.32 Interchange Classification 2E-37
Section 2E.33 Advance Guide Signs 2E-37
Section 2E.34 Next Exit Plaques 2E-41
Section 2E.35 Other Supplemental Guide Signs 2E-43
Section 2E.36 Exit Direction Signs 2E-44
Section 2E.37 Exit Gore Signs (E5-1 Series) 2E-47
Section 2E.38 Post-Interchange Signs 2E-48
Section 2E.39 Post-Interchange Distance Signs 2E-48
Section 2E.40 Interchange Sequence Signs 2E-49
Section 2E.41 Community Interchanges Identification Signs 2E-51
Section 2E.42 NEXT XX EXITS Sign 2E-51
Section 2E.43 Signing by Type of Interchange 2E-52
Section 2E.44 Freeway-to-Freeway Interchange 2E-52
Section 2E.45 Cloverleaf Interchange 2E-55
Section 2E.46 Cloverleaf Interchange with Collector-Distributor Roadways 2E-55
Section 2E.47 Partial Cloverleaf Interchange 2E-58
Section 2E.48 Diamond Interchange 2E-58
Section 2E.49 Diamond Interchange in Urban Area 2E-61
Section 2E.50 Closely-Spaced Interchanges 2E-61
Section 2E.51 Minor Interchange 2E-61
Section 2E.52 Signing on Conventional Road Approaches and Connecting Roadways 2E-61
Section 2E.53 Wrong-Way Traffic Control at Interchange Ramps 2E-61
Section 2E.54 Weigh Station Signing 2E-63
CHAPTER 2F. TOLL ROAD SIGNS
Section 2F.01 Scope 2F-1
Section 2F.02 Sizes of Toll Road Signs 2F-1
Section 2F.03 Use of Purple Backgrounds and Underlay Panels with ETC Account Pictographs 2F-2
Section 2F.04 Size of ETC Pictographs 2F-2
Section 2F.05 Regulatory Signs for Toll Plazas 2F-3
Section 2F.06 Pay Toll Advance Warning Sign (W9-6) 2F-5
Section 2F.07 Pay Toll Advance Warning Plaque (W9-6P) 2F-6
Section 2F.08 Stop Ahead Pay Toll Warning Sign (W9-6a) 2F-6
Section 2F.09 Stop Ahead Pay Toll Warning Plaque (W9-6aP) 2F-6
Section 2F.10 LAST EXIT BEFORE TOLL Warning Plaque (W16-16P) 2F-7
Section 2F.11 TOLL Auxiliary Sign (M4-15) 2F-7
Section 2F.12 Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) Account-Only Auxiliary Signs (M4-16 and M4-20) 2F-7
Section 2F.13 Toll Facility and Toll Plaza Guide Signs – General 2F-8
Section 2F.14 Advance Signs for Conventional Toll Plazas 2F-12
Section 2F.15 Advance Signs for Toll Plazas on Diverging Alignments from Open-Road
ETC Account-Only Lanes 2F-16
Section 2F.16 Toll Plaza Canopy Signs 2F-16
Section 2F.17 Guide Signs for Entrances to ETC Account-Only Facilities 2F-18
Section 2F.18 ETC Program Information Signs 2F-18
CHAPTER 2G. PREFERENTIAL AND MANAGED LANE SIGNS
Section 2G.01 Scope 2G-1
Section 2G.02 Sizes of Preferential and Managed Lane Signs 2G-1
Section 2G.03 Regulatory Signs for Preferential Lanes – General 2G-1
Section 2G.04 Preferential Lane Vehicle Occupancy Definition Regulatory Signs (R3-10 Series
and R3-13 Series) 2G-7
Section 2G.05 Preferential Lane Periods of Operation Regulatory Signs (R3-11 Series and R3-14
Series) 2G-8
Section 2G.06 Preferential Lane Advance Regulatory Signs (R3-12, R3-12e, R3-12f, R3-15, R3-15a,
and R3-15d) 2G-12
Section 2G.07 Preferential Lane Ends Regulatory Signs (R3-12a, R3-12b, R3-12c, R3-12d, R3-12g,
R3-12h, R3-15b, R3-15c, and R3-15e) 2G-12
Section 2G.08 Warning Signs on Median Barriers for Preferential Lanes 2G-12
Section 2G.09 High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Plaque (W16-11P) 2G-13
Section 2G.10 Preferential Lane Guide Signs – General 2G-13
Section 2G.11 Guide Signs for Initial Entry Points to Preferential Lanes 2G-17
Section 2G.12 Guide Signs for Intermediate Entry Points to Preferential Lanes 2G-18
Section 2G.13 Guide Signs for Egress from Preferential Lanes to General-Purpose Lanes 2G-20
Section 2G.14 Guide Signs for Direct Entrances to Preferential Lanes from Another Highway 2G-23
Section 2G.15 Guide Signs for Direct Exits from Preferential Lanes to Another Highway 2G-26
Section 2G.16 Signs for Priced Managed Lanes – General 2G-29
Section 2G.17 Regulatory Signs for Priced Managed Lanes 2G-30
Section 2G.18 Guide Signs for Priced Managed Lanes 2G-32
CHAPTER 2H. GENERAL INFORMATION SIGNS
Section 2H.01 Sizes of General Information Signs 2H-1
Section 2H.02 General Information Signs (I Series) 2H-1
Section 2H.03 Traffic Signal Speed Sign (I1-1) 2H-3
Section 2H.04 Miscellaneous Information Signs 2H-4
Section 2H.05 Reference Location Signs (D10-1 through D10-3) and Intermediate Reference
Location Signs (D10-1a through D10-3a) 2H-4
Section 2H.06 Enhanced Reference Location Signs (D10-4, D10-5) 2H-6
Section 2H.07 Auto Tour Route Signs 2H-7
Section 2H.08 Acknowledgment Signs 2H-8
CHAPTER 2I. GENERAL SERVICE SIGNS
Section 2I.01 Sizes of General Service Signs 2I-1
Section 2I.02 General Service Signs for Conventional Roads 2I-2
Section 2I.03 General Service Signs for Freeways and Expressways 2I-5
Section 2I.04 Interstate Oasis Signing 2I-8
Section 2I.05 Rest Area and Other Roadside Area Signs 2I-10
Section 2I.06 Brake Check Area Signs (D5-13 and D5-14) 2I-11
Section 2I.07 Chain-Up Area Signs (D5-15 and D5-16) 2I-11
Section 2I.08 Tourist Information and Welcome Center Signs 2I-11
Section 2I.09 Radio Information Signing 2I-13
Section 2I.10 TRAVEL INFO CALL 511 Signs (D12-5 and D12-5a) 2I-15
Section 2I.11 Carpool and Ridesharing Signing 2I-15
CHAPTER 2J. SPECIFIC SERVICE SIGNS
Section 2J.01 Eligibility 2J-1
Section 2J.02 Application 2J-3
Section 2J.03 Logos and Logo Sign Panels 2J-3
Section 2J.04 Number and Size of Signs and Logo Sign Panels 2J-8
Section 2J.05 Size of Lettering 2J-8
Section 2J.06 Signs at Interchanges 2J-8
Section 2J.07 Single-Exit Interchanges 2J-9
Section 2J.08 Double-Exit Interchanges 2J-9
Section 2J.09 Specific Service Trailblazer Signs 2J-9
Section 2J.10 Signs at Intersections 2J-10
Section 2J.11 Signing Policy 2J-11
CHAPTER 2K. TOURIST-ORIENTED DIRECTIONAL SIGNS
Section 2K.01 Purpose and Application 2K-1
Section 2K.02 Design 2K-1
Section 2K.03 Style and Size of Lettering 2K-2
Section 2K.04 Arrangement and Size of Signs 2K-2
Section 2K.05 Advance Signs 2K-5
Section 2K.06 Sign Locations 2K-5
Section 2K.07 State Policy 2K-6
CHAPTER 2L. CHANGEABLE MESSAGE SIGNS
Section 2L.01 Description of Changeable Message Signs 2L-1
Section 2L.02 Applications of Changeable Message Signs 2L-1
Section 2L.03 Legibility and Visibility of Changeable Message Signs 2L-2
Section 2L.04 Design Characteristics of Changeable Message Signs 2L-2
Section 2L.05 Message Length and Units of Information 2L-4
Section 2L.06 Installation of Permanent Changeable Message Signs 2L-5
CHAPTER 2M. RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL INTEREST AREA SIGNS
Section 2M.01 Scope 2M-1
Section 2M.02 Application of Recreational and Cultural Interest Area Signs 2M-1
Section 2M.03 Regulatory and Warning Signs 2M-1
Section 2M.04 General Design Requirements for Recreational and Cultural Interest Area Symbol
Guide Signs 2M-2
Section 2M.05 Symbol Sign Sizes 2M-2
Section 2M.06 Use of Educational Plaques 2M-2
Section 2M.07 Use of Prohibitive Circle and Diagonal Slash for Non-Road Applications 2M-2
Section 2M.08 Placement of Recreational and Cultural Interest Area Symbol Signs 2M-4
Section 2M.09 Destination Guide Signs 2M-12
Section 2M.10 Memorial or Dedication Signing 2M-13
CHAPTER 2N. EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT SIGNING
Section 2N.01 Emergency Management 2N-1
Section 2N.02 Design of Emergency Management Signs 2N-1
Section 2N.03 Evacuation Route Signs (EM-1, EM-1-DE, and EM-1a) 2N-2
Section 2N.04 AREA CLOSED Sign (EM-2) 2N-3
Section 2N.05 TRAFFIC CONTROL POINT Sign (EM-3) 2N-3
Section 2N.06 MAINTAIN TOP SAFE SPEED Sign (EM-4) 2N-4
Section 2N.07 ROAD (AREA) USE PERMIT REQUIRED FOR THRU TRAFFIC Sign (EM-5) 2N-4
Section 2N.08 Emergency Aid Center Signs (EM-6 Series) 2N-4
Section 2N.09 Shelter Directional Signs (EM-7 Series) 2N-5
Section 2N.10 Emergency Siren Sign (EM-7-DE) 2N-6
PART 3. MARKINGS
CHAPTER 3A. GENERAL
Section 3A.01 Functions and Limitations 3A-1
Section 3A.02 Standardization of Application 3A-1
Section 3A.03 Maintaining Minimum Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity 3A-1
Section 3A.04 Materials 3A-1
Section 3A.05 Colors 3A-2
Section 3A.06 Functions, Widths, and Patterns of Longitudinal Pavement Markings 3A-2
CHAPTER 3B. PAVEMENT AND CURB MARKINGS
Section 3B.01 Yellow Center Line Pavement Markings and Warrants 3B-1
Section 3B.02 No-Passing Zone Pavement Markings and Warrants 3B-4
Section 3B.03 Other Yellow Longitudinal Pavement Markings 3B-8
Section 3B.04 White Lane Line Pavement Markings and Warrants 3B-10
Section 3B.05 Other White Longitudinal Pavement Markings 3B-35
Section 3B.06 Edge Line Pavement Markings 3B-36
Section 3B.07 Warrants for Use of Edge Lines 3B-37
Section 3B.08 Extensions Through Intersections or Interchanges 3B-37
Section 3B.09 Lane-Reduction Transition Markings 3B-40
Section 3B.10 Approach Markings for Obstructions 3B-45
Section 3B.11 Raised Pavement Markers – General 3B-48
Section 3B.12 Raised Pavement Markers as Vehicle Positioning Guides with Other Longitudinal
Markings 3B-57
Section 3B.13 Raised Pavement Markers Supplementing Other Markings 3B-57
Section 3B.14 Raised Pavement Markers Substituting for Pavement Markings 3B-58
Section 3B.15 Transverse Markings 3B-58
Section 3B.16 Stop and Yield Lines 3B-59
Section 3B.17 Do Not Block Intersection Markings 3B-61
Section 3B.18 Crosswalk Markings 3B-62
Section 3B.19 Parking Space Markings 3B-64
Section 3B.20 Pavement Word, Symbol, and Arrow Markings 3B-67
Section 3B.21 Speed Measurement Markings 3B-74
Section 3B.22 Speed Reduction Markings 3B-74
Section 3B.23 Curb Markings 3B-75
Section 3B.24 Chevron and Diagonal Crosshatch Markings 3B-76
Section 3B.25 Speed Hump Markings 3B-77
Section 3B.26 Advance Speed Hump Markings 3B-77
CHAPTER 3C. ROUNDABOUT MARKINGS
Section 3C.01 General 3C-1
Section 3C.02 White Lane Line Pavement Markings for Roundabouts 3C-1
Section 3C.03 Edge Line Pavement Markings for Roundabout Circulatory Roadways 3C-1
Section 3C.04 Yield Lines for Roundabouts 3C-2
Section 3C.05 Crosswalk Markings at Roundabouts 3C-2
Section 3C.06 Word, Symbol, and Arrow Pavement Markings for Roundabouts 3C-2
Section 3C.07 Markings for Other Circular Intersections 3C-2
CHAPTER 3D. MARKINGS FOR PREFERENTIAL LANES
Section 3D.01 Preferential Lane Word and Symbol Markings 3D-1
Section 3D.02 Preferential Lane Longitudinal Markings for Motor Vehicles 3D-2
CHAPTER 3E. MARKINGS FOR TOLL PLAZAS
Section 3E.01 Markings for Toll Plazas 3E-1
CHAPTER 3F. DELINEATORS
Section 3F.01 Delineators 3F-1
Section 3F.02 Delineator Design 3F-1
Section 3F.03 Delineator Application 3F-1
Section 3F.04 Delineator Placement and Spacing 3F-3
CHAPTER 3G. COLORED PAVEMENTS
Section 3G.01 General 3G-1
CHAPTER 3H. CHANNELIZING DEVICES USED FOR EMPHASIS OF PAVEMENT MARKING PATTERNS
Section 3H.01 Channelizing Devices 3H-1
CHAPTER 3I. ISLANDS
Section 3I.01 General 3I-1
Section 3I.02 Approach-End Treatment 3I-1
Section 3I.03 Island Marking Application 3I-1
Section 3I.04 Island Marking Colors 3I-1
Section 3I.05 Island Delineation 3I-2
Section 3I.06 Pedestrian Islands and Medians 3I-2
CHAPTER 3J. RUMBLE STRIP MARKINGS
Section 3J.01 Longitudinal Rumble Strip Markings 3J-1
Section 3J.02 Transverse Rumble Strip Markings 3J-1
PART 4. HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SIGNALS
CHAPTER 4A. GENERAL
Section 4A.01 Types 4A-1
Section 4A.02 Definitions Relating to Highway Traffic Signals 4A-1
CHAPTER 4B. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS—GENERAL
Section 4B.01 General 4B-1
Section 4B.02 Basis of Installation or Removal of Traffic Control Signals 4B-1
Section 4B.03 Advantages and Disadvantages of Traffic Control Signals 4B-1
Section 4B.04 Alternatives to Traffic Control Signals 4B-2
Section 4B.05 Adequate Roadway Capacity 4B-2
CHAPTER 4C. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNAL NEEDS STUDIES
Section 4C.01 Studies and Factors for Justifying Traffic Control Signals 4C-1
Section 4C.02 Warrant 1, Eight-Hour Vehicular Volume 4C-3
Section 4C.03 Warrant 2, Four-Hour Vehicular Volume 4C-4
Section 4C.04 Warrant 3, Peak Hour 4C-5
Section 4C.05 Warrant 4, Pedestrian Volume 4C-6
Section 4C.06 Warrant 5, School Crossing 4C-10
Section 4C.07 Warrant 6, Coordinated Signal System 4C-11
Section 4C.08 Warrant 7, Crash Experience 4C-11
Section 4C.09 Warrant 8, Roadway Network 4C-11
Section 4C.10 Warrant 9, Intersection Near a Grade Crossing 4C-12
CHAPTER 4D. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNAL FEATURES
Section 4D.01 General 4D-1
Section 4D.02 Responsibility for Operation and Maintenance 4D-1
Section 4D.03 Provisions for Pedestrians 4D-2
Section 4D.04 Meaning of Vehicular Signal Indications 4D-2
Section 4D.05 Application of Steady Signal Indications 4D-5
Section 4D.06 Signal Indications – Design, Illumination, Color, and Shape 4D-8
Section 4D.07 Size of Vehicular Signal Indications 4D-9
Section 4D.08 Positions of Signal Indications Within a Signal Face – General 4D-10
Section 4D.09 Positions of Signal Indications Within a Vertical Signal Face 4D-11
Section 4D.10 Positions of Signal Indications Within a Horizontal Signal Face 4D-12
Section 4D.11 Number of Signal Faces on an Approach 4D-13
Section 4D.12 Visibility, Aiming, and Shielding of Signal Faces 4D-15
Section 4D.13 Lateral Positioning of Signal Faces 4D-17
Section 4D.14 Longitudinal Positioning of Signal Faces 4D-18
Section 4D.15 Mounting Height of Signal Faces 4D-18
Section 4D.16 Lateral Offset (Clearance) of Signal Faces 4D-19
Section 4D.17 Signal Indications for Left-Turn Movements – General 4D-20
Section 4D.18 Signal Indications for Permissive Only Mode Left-Turn Movements 4D-21
Section 4D.19 Signal Indications for Protected Only Mode Left-Turn Movements 4D-24
Section 4D.20 Signal Indications for Protected/Permissive Mode Left-Turn Movements 4D-26
Section 4D.21 Signal Indications for Right-Turn Movements – General 4D-29
Section 4D.22 Signal Indications for Permissive Only Mode Right-Turn Movements 4D-31
Section 4D.23 Signal Indications for Protected Only Mode Right-Turn Movements 4D-34
Section 4D.24 Signal Indications for Protected/Permissive Mode Right-Turn Movements 4D-37
Section 4D.25 Signal Indications for Approaches With Shared Left-Turn/Right-Turn Lanes and No Through Movement 4D-41
Section 4D.26 Yellow Change and Red Clearance Intervals 4D-45
Section 4D.27 Preemption and Priority Control of Traffic Control Signals 4D-46
Section 4D.28 Flashing Operation of Traffic Control Signals – General 4D-48
Section 4D.29 Flashing Operation – Transition Into Flashing Mode 4D-48
Section 4D.30 Flashing Operation – Signal Indications During Flashing Mode 4D-49
Section 4D.31 Flashing Operation – Transition Out of Flashing Mode 4D-49
Section 4D.32 Temporary and Portable Traffic Control Signals 4D-50
Section 4D.33 Lateral Offset of Signal Supports and Cabinets 4D-50
Section 4D.34 Use of Signs at Signalized Locations 4D-51
Section 4D.35 Use of Pavement Markings at Signalized Locations 4D-51
CHAPTER 4E. PEDESTRIAN CONTROL FEATURES
Section 4E.01 Pedestrian Signal Heads 4E-1
Section 4E.02 Meaning of Pedestrian Signal Head Indications 4E-1
Section 4E.03 Application of Pedestrian Signal Heads 4E-1
Section 4E.04 Size, Design, and Illumination of Pedestrian Signal Head Indications 4E-2
Section 4E.05 Location and Height of Pedestrian Signal Heads 4E-3
Section 4E.06 Pedestrian Intervals and Signal Phases 4E-3
Section 4E.07 Countdown Pedestrian Signals 4E-6
Section 4E.08 Pedestrian Detectors 4E-7
Section 4E.09 Accessible Pedestrian Signals and Detectors – General 4E-11
Section 4E.10 Accessible Pedestrian Signals and Detectors – Location 4E-12
Section 4E.11 Accessible Pedestrian Signals and Detectors – Walk Indications 4E-13
Section 4E.12 Accessible Pedestrian Signals and Detectors – Tactile Arrows and Locator Tones 4E-15
Section 4E.13 Accessible Pedestrian Signals and Detectors – Extended Pushbutton Press Features 4E-15
CHAPTER 4F. PEDESTRIAN HYBRID BEACONS
Section 4F.01 Application of Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons 4F-1
Section 4F.02 Design of Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons 4F-1
Section 4F.03 Operation of Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons 4F-4
CHAPTER 4G. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS AND HYBRID BEACONS FOR EMERGENCY-VEHICLE ACCESS
Section 4G.01 Application of Emergency-Vehicle Traffic Control Signals and Hybrid Beacons 4G-1
Section 4G.02 Design of Emergency-Vehicle Traffic Control Signals 4G-1
Section 4G.03 Operation of Emergency-Vehicle Traffic Control Signals 4G-2
Section 4G.04 Emergency-Vehicle Hybrid Beacons 4G-2
CHAPTER 4H. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS FOR ONE-LANE, TWO-WAY FACILITIES
Section 4H.01 Application of Traffic Control Signals for One-Lane, Two-Way Facilities 4H-1
Section 4H.02 Design of Traffic Control Signals for One-Lane, Two-Way Facilities 4H-1
Section 4H.03 Operation of Traffic Control Signals for One-Lane, Two-Way Facilities 4H-1
CHAPTER 4I. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS FOR FREEWAY ENTRANCE RAMPS
Section 4I.01 Application of Freeway Entrance Ramp Control Signals 4I-1
Section 4I.02 Design of Freeway Entrance Ramp Control Signals 4I-1
Section 4I.03 Operation of Freeway Entrance Ramp Control Signals 4I-2
CHAPTER 4J. TRAFFIC CONTROL FOR MOVABLE BRIDGES
Section 4J.01 Application of Traffic Control for Movable Bridges 4J-1
Section 4J.02 Design and Location of Movable Bridge Signals and Gates 4J-1
Section 4J.03 Operation of Movable Bridge Signals and Gates 4J-3
CHAPTER 4K. HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SIGNALS AT TOLL PLAZAS
Section 4K.01 Traffic Signals at Toll Plazas 4K-1
Section 4K.02 Lane-Use Control Signals at or Near Toll Plazas 4K-1
Section 4K.03 Warning Beacons at Toll Plazas 4K-1
CHAPTER 4L. FLASHING BEACONS
Section 4L.01 General Design and Operation of Flashing Beacons 4L-1
Section 4L.02 Intersection Control Beacon 4L-1
Section 4L.03 Warning Beacon 4L-2
Section 4L.04 Speed Limit Sign Beacon 4L-2
Section 4L.05 Stop Beacon 4L-3
CHAPTER 4M. LANE-USE CONTROL SIGNALS
Section 4M.01 Application of Lane-Use Control Signals 4M-1
Section 4M.02 Meaning of Lane-Use Control Signal Indications 4M-1
Section 4M.03 Design of Lane-Use Control Signals 4M-2
Section 4M.04 Operation of Lane-Use Control Signals 4M-3
CHAPTER 4N. IN-ROADWAY LIGHTS
Section 4N.01 Application of In-Roadway Lights 4N-1
Section 4N.02 In-Roadway Warning Lights at Crosswalks 4N-1
PART 5. TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES FOR LOW-VOLUME ROADS
CHAPTER 5A. GENERAL
Section 5A.01 Function 5A-1
Section 5A.02 Application 5A-1
Section 5A.03 Design 5A-1
Section 5A.04 Placement 5A-3
CHAPTER 5B. REGULATORY SIGNS
Section 5B.01 Introduction 5B-1
Section 5B.02 STOP and YIELD Signs (R1-1 and R1-2) 5B-1
Section 5B.03 Speed Limit Signs (R2 Series) 5B-1
Section 5B.04 Traffic Movement and Prohibition Signs (R3, R4, R5, R6, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13
and R14 Series) 5B-2
Section 5B.05 Parking Signs (R8 Series) 5B-2
Section 5B.06 Other Regulatory Signs 5B-2
CHAPTER 5C. WARNING SIGNS
Section 5C.01 Introduction 5C-1
Section 5C.02 Horizontal Alignment Signs (W1-1 through W1-8) 5C-1
Section 5C.03 Intersection Warning Signs (W2-1 through W2-6) 5C-1
Section 5C.04 Stop Ahead and Yield Ahead Signs (W3-1, W3-2) 5C-1
Section 5C.05 NARROW BRIDGE Sign (W5-2) 5C-1
Section 5C.06 ONE LANE BRIDGE Sign (W5-3) 5C-1
Section 5C.07 Hill Sign (W7-1) 5C-4
Section 5C.08 PAVEMENT ENDS Sign (W8-3) 5C-4
Section 5C.09 Vehicular Traffic Warning and Non-Vehicular Warning Signs (W11 Series and W8-6) 5C-4
Section 5C.10 Advisory Speed Plaque (W13-1P) 5C-4
Section 5C.11 DEAD END or NO OUTLET Signs (W14-1, W14-1a, W14-2, W14-2a) 5C-4
Section 5C.12 NO TRAFFIC SIGNS Sign (W18-1) 5C-4
Section 5C.13 Other Warning Signs 5C-5
Section 5C.14 Object Markers and Barricades 5C-5
CHAPTER 5D. GUIDE SIGNS
Section 5D.01 Introduction 5D-1
CHAPTER 5E. MARKINGS
Section 5E.01 Introduction 5E-1
Section 5E.02 Center Line Markings 5E-1
Section 5E.03 Edge Line Markings 5E-1
Section 5E.04 Delineators 5E-1
Section 5E.05 Other Markings 5E-1
CHAPTER 5F. TRAFFIC CONTROL FOR HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS
Section 5F.01 Introduction 5F-1
Section 5F.02 Grade Crossing (Crossbuck) Sign and Number of Tracks Plaque (R15-1, R15-2P) 5F-1
Section 5F.03 Grade Crossing Advance Warning Signs (W10 Series) 5F-2
Section 5F.04 STOP and YIELD Signs (R1-1, R1-2) 5F-2
Section 5F.05 Pavement Markings 5F-2
Section 5F.06 Other Traffic Control Devices 5F-2
CHAPTER 5G. TEMPORARY TRAFFIC CONTROL ZONES
Section 5G.01 Introduction 5G-1
Section 5G.02 Applications 5G-1
Section 5G.03 Channelization Devices 5G-2
Section 5G.04 Markings 5G-2
Section 5G.05 Other Traffic Control Devices 5G-2
CHAPTER 5H. TRAFFIC CONTROL FOR SCHOOL AREAS
Section 5H.01 Introduction 5H-1
PART 6. TEMPORARY TRAFFIC CONTROL
CHAPTER 6A. GENERAL
Section 6A.01 General 6A-1
CHAPTER 6B. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
Section 6B.01 Fundamental Principles of Temporary Traffic Control 6B-1
CHAPTER 6C. TEMPORARY TRAFFIC CONTROL ELEMENTS
Section 6C.01 Temporary Traffic Control Plans 6C-1
Section 6C.02 Temporary Traffic Control Zones 6C-2
Section 6C.03 Components of Temporary Traffic Control Zones 6C-2
Section 6C.04 Advance Warning Area 6C-2
Section 6C.05 Transition Area 6C-4
Section 6C.06 Activity Area 6C-5
Section 6C.07 Termination Area 6C-7
Section 6C.08 Tapers 6C-7
Section 6C.09 Detours and Diversions 6C-10
Section 6C.10 One-Lane, Two-Way Traffic Control 6C-10
Section 6C.11 Flagger Method of One-Lane, Two-Way Traffic Control 6C-10
Section 6C.12 Flag Transfer Method of One-Lane, Two-Way Traffic Control 6C-11
Section 6C.13 Pilot Car Method of One-Lane, Two-Way Traffic Control 6C-11
Section 6C.14 Temporary Traffic Control Signal Method of One-Lane, Two-Way Traffic Control 6C-11
Section 6C.15 Stop or Yield Control Method of One-Lane, Two-Way Traffic Control 6C-11
CHAPTER 6D. PEDESTRIAN AND WORKER SAFETY
Section 6D.01 Pedestrian Considerations 6D-1
Section 6D.02 Accessibility Considerations 6D-3
Section 6D.03 Worker Safety Considerations 6D-4
CHAPTER 6E. FLAGGER CONTROL
Section 6E.01 Qualifications for Flaggers 6E-1
Section 6E.02 High-Visibility Safety Apparel 6E-1
Section 6E.03 Hand-Signaling Devices 6E-1
Section 6E.04 Automated Flagger Assistance Devices 6E-3
Section 6E.05 STOP/SLOW Automated Flagger Assistance Devices 6E-4
Section 6E.06 Red/Yellow Lens Automated Flagger Assistance Devices 6E-6
Section 6E.07 Flagger Procedures 6E-8
Section 6E.08 Flagger Stations 6E-11
CHAPTER 6F. TEMPORARY TRAFFIC CONTROL ZONE DEVICES
Section 6F.01 Types of Devices 6F-1
Section 6F.02 General Characteristics of Signs 6F-1
Section 6F.03 Sign Placement 6F-2
Section 6F.04 Sign Maintenance 6F-11
Section 6F.05 Regulatory Sign Authority 6F-11
Section 6F.06 Regulatory Sign Design 6F-11
Section 6F.07 Regulatory Sign Applications 6F-11
Section 6F.08 ROAD (STREET) CLOSED Sign (R11-2) 6F-11
Section 6F.09 Local Traffic Only Signs (R11-3a, R11-4) 6F-12
Section 6F.10 Weight Limit Signs (R12-1, R12-2, R12-5) 6F-12
Section 6F.11 STAY IN LANE Sign (R4-9) 6F-12
Section 6F.12 Work Zone and Higher Fines Signs and Plaques 6F-12
Section 6F.13 PEDESTRIAN CROSSWALK Sign (R9-8) 6F-13
Section 6F.14 SIDEWALK CLOSED Signs (R9-9, R9-10, R9-11, R9-11a) 6F-13
Section 6F.15 Special Regulatory Signs 6F-13
Section 6F.16 Warning Sign Function, Design, and Application 6F-14
Section 6F.17 Position of Advance Warning Signs 6F-14
Section 6F.18 ROAD (STREET) WORK Sign (W20-1) 6F-18
Section 6F.19 DETOUR Sign (W20-2) 6F-18
Section 6F.20 ROAD (STREET) CLOSED Sign (W20-3) 6F-18
Section 6F.21 ONE LANE ROAD Sign (W20-4) 6F-18
Section 6F.22 Lane(s) Closed Signs (W20-5, W20-5a) 6F-18
Section 6F.23 CENTER LANE CLOSED AHEAD Sign (W9-3) 6F-19
Section 6F.24 Lane Ends Sign (W4-2) and MERGE (LEFT or RIGHT) Sign (W4-2-DE) 6F-19
Section 6F.25 ON RAMP Plaque (W13-4P) 6F-19
Section 6F.26 RAMP NARROWS Sign (W5-4) 6F-19
Section 6F.27 SLOW TRAFFIC AHEAD Sign (W23-1) 6F-19
Section 6F.28 EXIT OPEN and EXIT CLOSED Signs (E5-2, E5-2a) 6F-19
Section 6F.29 EXIT ONLY Sign (E5-3) 6F-19
Section 6F.30 NEW TRAFFIC PATTERN AHEAD Sign (W23-2P-DE) 6F-19
Section 6F.31 Flagger Signs (W20-7, W20-7-DE, W20-7a) 6F-20
Section 6F.32 Two-Way Traffic Sign (W6-3) 6F-20
Section 6F.33 Workers Signs (W21-1, W21-1a) 6F-21
Section 6F.34 FRESH OIL (TAR) Sign (W21-2) 6F-21
Section 6F.35 ROAD MACHINERY AHEAD Sign (W21-3) 6F-21
Section 6F.36 Motorized Traffic Signs (W8-6, W11-10) 6F-21
Section 6F.37 Shoulder Work Signs (W21-5, W21-5a, W21-5b) 6F-21
Section 6F.38 SURVEY CREW Sign (W21-6) 6F-22
Section 6F.39 UTILITY WORK Sign (W21-7) 6F-22
Section 6F.40 Signs for Blasting Areas 6F-22
Section 6F.41 BLASTING ZONE AHEAD Sign (W22-1) 6F-22
Section 6F.42 TURN OFF 2-WAY RADIO AND CELL PHONE Sign (W22-2) 6F-22
Section 6F.43 END BLASTING ZONE Sign (W22-3) 6F-22
Section 6F.44 Shoulder Signs and Plaque (W8-4, W8-9, W8-17, and W8-17P) 6F-22
Section 6F.45 UNEVEN LANES Sign (W8-11) 6F-23
Section 6F.46 STEEL PLATE AHEAD Sign (W8-24) 6F-23
Section 6F.47 NO CENTER LINE Sign (W8-12) 6F-23
Section 6F.48 Reverse Curve Signs (W1-4 Series) 6F-23
Section 6F.49 Double Reverse Curve Signs (W24-1 Series) 6F-23
Section 6F.50 Other Warning Signs 6F-24
Section 6F.51 Special Warning Signs 6F-24
Section 6F.52 Advisory Speed Plaque (W13-1P) 6F-24
Section 6F.53 Supplementary Distance Plaque (W7-3aP) 6F-24
Section 6F.54 Motorcycle Plaque (W8-15P) 6F-25
Section 6F.55 Guide Signs 6F-25
Section 6F.56 ROAD WORK NEXT XX MILES Sign (G20-1) 6F-25
Section 6F.57 END ROAD WORK Sign (G20-2) 6F-26
Section 6F.58 PILOT CAR FOLLOW ME Sign (G20-4) 6F-26
Section 6F.59 Detour Signs (M4-8, M4-8a, M4-8b, M4-9, M4-9-DE, M4-9a, M4-9b, M4-9c,
and M4-10) 6F-26
Section 6F.60 Portable Changeable Message Signs 6F-27
Section 6F.61 Arrow Boards 6F-30
Section 6F.62 High-Level Warning Devices (Flag Trees) 6F-32
Section 6F.63 Channelizing Devices 6F-33
Section 6F.64 Cones 6F-35
Section 6F.65 Tubular Markers 6F-36
Section 6F.66 Vertical Panels 6F-36
Section 6F.67 Drums 6F-37
Section 6F.68 Type 1, 2, or 3 Barricades 6F-37
Section 6F.69 Direction Indicator Barricades 6F-39
Section 6F.70 Temporary Traffic Barriers as Channelizing Devices 6F-39
Section 6F.71 Longitudinal Channelizing Devices 6F-40
Section 6F.72 Temporary Lane Separators 6F-40
Section 6F.73 Other Channelizing Devices 6F-41
Section 6F.74 Detectable Edging for Pedestrians 6F-41
Section 6F.75 Temporary Raised Islands 6F-42
Section 6F.76 Opposing Traffic Lane Divider and Sign (W6-4) 6F-42
Section 6F.77 Pavement Markings 6F-42
Section 6F.78 Temporary Markings 6F-43
Section 6F.79 Temporary Raised Pavement Markers 6F-44
Section 6F.80 Delineators 6F-44
Section 6F.81 Lighting Devices 6F-45
Section 6F.82 Floodlights 6F-45
Section 6F.83 Warning Lights 6F-46
Section 6F.84 Temporary Traffic Control Signals 6F-47
Section 6F.85 Temporary Traffic Barriers 6F-49
Section 6F.86 Crash Cushions 6F-51
Section 6F.87 Rumble Strips 6F-53
Section 6F.88 Screens 6F-53
CHAPTER 6G. TYPE OF TEMPORARY TRAFFIC CONTROL ZONE ACTIVITIES
Section 6G.01 Typical Applications 6G-1
Section 6G.02 Work Duration 6G-1
Section 6G.03 Location of Work 6G-3
Section 6G.04 Modifications To Fulfill Special Needs 6G-3
Section 6G.05 Work Affecting Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities 6G-4
Section 6G.06 Work Outside of the Shoulder 6G-5
Section 6G.07 Work on the Shoulder with No Encroachment 6G-6
Section 6G.08 Work on the Shoulder with Minor Encroachment 6G-6
Section 6G.09 Work Within the Median 6G-7
Section 6G.10 Work Within the Traveled Way of a Two-Lane Highway 6G-7
Section 6G.11 Work Within the Traveled Way of an Urban Street 6G-8
Section 6G.12 Work Within the Traveled Way of a Multi-Lane, Non-Access Controlled Highway 6G-8
Section 6G.13 Work Within the Traveled Way at an Intersection 6G-10
Section 6G.14 Work Within the Traveled Way of an Interstate, Freeway, or Expressway 6G-11
Section 6G.15 Two-Lane, Two-Way Traffic on One Roadway of a Normally Divided Highway 6G-12
Section 6G.16 Crossovers 6G-12
Section 6G.17 Interchanges 6G-12
Section 6G.18 Work in the Vicinity of a Grade Crossing 6G-12
Section 6G.19 Temporary Traffic Control During Nighttime Hours 6G-13
Section 6G.20 Vertical Difference 6G-14
Section 6G.21 Storage of Equipment 6G-16
CHAPTER 6H. TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
Section 6H.01 Typical Applications 6H-1
CHAPTER 6I. CONTROL OF TRAFFIC THROUGH TRAFFIC INCIDENT MANAGEMENT AREAS
Section 6I.01 General 6I-1
Section 6I.02 Major Traffic Incidents 6I-2
Section 6I.03 Intermediate Traffic Incidents 6I-3
Section 6I.04 Minor Traffic Incidents 6I-4
Section 6I.05 Use of Emergency-Vehicle Lighting 6I-4
PART 7. TRAFFIC CONTROL FOR SCHOOL AREAS
CHAPTER 7A. GENERAL
Section 7A.01 Need for Standards 7A-1
Section 7A.02 School Routes and Established School Crossings 7A-2
Section 7A.03 School Crossing Control Criteria 7A-3
Section 7A.04 Scope 7A-3
CHAPTER 7B. SIGNS
Section 7B.01 Size of School Signs 7B-1
Section 7B.02 Illumination and Reflectorization 7B-2
Section 7B.03 Position of Signs 7B-2
Section 7B.04 Height of Signs 7B-2
Section 7B.05 Installation of Signs 7B-2
Section 7B.06 Lettering 7B-2
Section 7B.07 Sign Color for School Warning Signs 7B-2
Section 7B.08 School Sign (S1-1) and Plaques 7B-3
Section 7B.09 School Zone Sign (S1-1) and Plaques (S4-3P, S4-7P) and END SCHOOL ZONE
Sign (S5-2) 7B-3
Section 7B.10 Higher Fines Zone Signs (R2-10, R2-11) and Plaques 7B-3
Section 7B.11 School Advance Crossing Assembly 7B-5
Section 7B.12 School Crossing Assembly 7B-5
Section 7B.13 School Bus Stop Ahead Sign (S3-1) 7B-11
Section 7B.14 SCHOOL BUS TURN AHEAD Sign (S3-2) 7B-11
Section 7B.15 School Speed Limit Assembly (S4-1P, S4-2P, S4-3P, S4-4P, S4-6P, S5-1) and
END SCHOOL SPEED LIMIT Sign (S5-3) 7B-11
Section 7B.16 Reduced School Speed Limit Ahead Sign (S4-5, S4-5a) 7B-13
Section 7B.17 Parking and Stopping Signs (R7 and R8 Series) 7B-13
Section 7B.18 Flashing Beacons at School Crossings (DE Revision) 7B-13
CHAPTER 7C. MARKINGS
Section 7C.01 Functions and Limitations 7C-1
Section 7C.02 Crosswalk Markings 7C-1
Section 7C.03 Pavement Word, Symbol, and Arrow Markings 7C-1
Section 7C.04 Stop Lines (DE Revision) 7C-2
CHAPTER 7D. CROSSING SUPERVISION
Section 7D.01 Types of Crossing Supervision 7D-1
Section 7D.02 Adult Crossing Guards 7D-1
Section 7D.03 Qualifications of Adult Crossing Guards 7D-1
Section 7D.04 Uniform of Adult Crossing Guards 7D-1
Section 7D.05 Operating Procedures for Adult Crossing Guards 7D-1
PART 8. TRAFFIC CONTROL FOR RAILROAD AND LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT GRADE CROSSINGS
CHAPTER 8A. GENERAL
Section 8A.01 Introduction 8A-1
Section 8A.02 Use of Standard Devices, Systems, and Practices at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings 8A-2
Section 8A.03 Use of Standard Devices, Systems, and Practices at Highway-LRT Grade Crossings 8A-2
Section 8A.04 Uniform Provisions 8A-3
Section 8A.05 Grade Crossing Elimination 8A-4
Section 8A.06 Illumination at Grade Crossings 8A-4
Section 8A.07 Quiet Zone Treatments at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings 8A-4
Section 8A.08 Temporary Traffic Control Zones 8A-4
CHAPTER 8B. SIGNS AND MARKINGS
Section 8B.01 Purpose 8B-1
Section 8B.02 Sizes of Grade Crossing Signs 8B-1
Section 8B.03 Grade Crossing (Crossbuck) Sign (R15-1) and Number of Tracks Plaque (R15-2P) at
Active and Passive Grade Crossings 8B-1
Section 8B.04 Crossbuck Assemblies with YIELD or STOP Signs at Passive Grade Crossings 8B-4
Section 8B.05 Use of STOP (R1-1) or YIELD (R1-2) Signs without Crossbuck Signs at
Highway-LRT Grade Crossings 8B-8
Section 8B.06 Grade Crossing Advance Warning Signs (W10 Series) 8B-9
Section 8B.07 EXEMPT Grade Crossing Plaques (R15-3P, W10-1aP) 8B-10
Section 8B.08 Turn Restrictions During Preemption 8B-10
Section 8B.09 DO NOT STOP ON TRACKS Sign (R8-8) 8B-11
Section 8B.10 TRACKS OUT OF SERVICE Sign (R8-9) 8B-11
Section 8B.11 STOP HERE WHEN FLASHING Signs (R8-10, R8-10a) 8B-12
Section 8B.12 STOP HERE ON RED Signs (R10-6, R10-6a) 8B-12
Section 8B.13 Light Rail Transit Only Lane Signs (R15-4 Series) 8B-12
Section 8B.14 Do Not Pass Light Rail Transit Signs (R15-5, R15-5a) 8B-12
Section 8B.15 No Motor Vehicles On Tracks Signs (R15-6, R15-6a) 8B-13
Section 8B.16 Divided Highway with Light Rail Transit Crossing Signs (R15-7 Series) 8B-13
Section 8B.17 LOOK Sign (R15-8) 8B-13
Section 8B.18 Emergency Notification Sign (I-13) 8B-13
Section 8B.19 Light Rail Transit Approaching-Activated Blank-Out Warning Sign (W10-7) 8B-14
Section 8B.20 TRAINS MAY EXCEED 80 MPH Sign (W10-8) 8B-14
Section 8B.21 NO TRAIN HORN Sign or Plaque (W10-9, W10-9P) 8B-14
Section 8B.22 NO GATES OR LIGHTS Plaque (W10-13P) 8B-15
Section 8B.23 Low Ground Clearance Grade Crossing Sign (W10-5) 8B-15
Section 8B.24 Storage Space Signs (W10-11, W10-11a, W10-11b) 8B-15
Section 8B.25 Skewed Crossing Sign (W10-12) 8B-16
Section 8B.26 Light Rail Transit Station Sign (I-12) 8B-16
Section 8B.27 Pavement Markings 8B-16
Section 8B.28 Stop and Yield Lines 8B-16
Section 8B.29 Dynamic Envelope Markings 8B-17
CHAPTER 8C. FLASHING-LIGHT SIGNALS, GATES, AND TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS
Section 8C.01 Introduction 8C-1
Section 8C.02 Flashing-Light Signals 8C-3
Section 8C.03 Flashing-Light Signals at Highway-LRT Grade Crossings 8C-4
Section 8C.04 Automatic Gates 8C-4
Section 8C.05 Use of Automatic Gates at LRT Grade Crossings 8C-5
Section 8C.06 Four-Quadrant Gate Systems 8C-5
Section 8C.07 Wayside Horn Systems 8C-8
Section 8C.08 Rail Traffic Detection 8C-8
Section 8C.09 Traffic Control Signals at or Near Highway-Rail Grade Crossings 8C-8
Section 8C.10 Traffic Control Signals at or Near Highway-LRT Grade Crossings 8C-10
Section 8C.11 Use of Traffic Control Signals for Control of LRT Vehicles at Grade Crossings 8C-11
Section 8C.12 Grade Crossings Within or In Close Proximity to Circular Intersections 8C-13
Section 8C.13 Pedestrian and Bicycle Signals and Crossings at LRT Grade Crossings 8C-13
CHAPTER 8D. PATHWAY GRADE CROSSINGS
Section 8D.01 Purpose 8D-1
Section 8D.02 Use of Standard Devices, Systems, and Practices 8D-1
Section 8D.03 Pathway Grade Crossing Signs and Markings 8D-1
Section 8D.04 Stop Lines, Edge Lines, and Detectable Warnings 8D-1
Section 8D.05 Passive Devices for Pathway Grade Crossings 8D-3
Section 8D.06 Active Traffic Control Systems for Pathway Grade Crossings 8D-3
PART 9. TRAFFIC CONTROL FOR BICYCLE FACILITIES
CHAPTER 9A. GENERAL
Section 9A.01 Requirements for Bicyclist Traffic Control Devices 9A-1
Section 9A.02 Scope 9A-1
Section 9A.03 Definitions Relating to Bicycles 9A-1
Section 9A.04 Maintenance 9A-1
Section 9A.05 Relation to Other Documents 9A-1
Section 9A.06 Placement Authority 9A-1
Section 9A.07 Meaning of Standard, Guidance, Option, and Support 9A-1
Section 9A.08 Colors 9A-2
CHAPTER 9B. SIGNS
Section 9B.01 Application and Placement of Signs 9B-1
Section 9B.02 Design of Bicycle Signs 9B-1
Section 9B.03 STOP and YIELD Signs (R1-1, R1-2) 9B-4
Section 9B.04 Bike Lane Signs and Plaques (R3-17, R3-17aP, R3-17bP) 9B-4
Section 9B.05 BEGIN RIGHT TURN LANE (RIGHT TURNS) YIELD TO BIKES Signs
(R4-4, R4-4-DE) 9B-6
Section 9B.06 Bicycles May Use Full Lane Sign (R4-11) 9B-7
Section 9B.07 Bicycle WRONG WAY Sign and RIDE WITH TRAFFIC Plaque (R5-1b, R9-3cP) 9B-7
Section 9B.08 NO MOTOR VEHICLES Sign (R5-3) 9B-7
Section 9B.09 Selective Exclusion Signs 9B-7
Section 9B.10 No Parking Bike Lane Signs (R7-9, R7-9a) 9B-8
Section 9B.11 Bicycle Regulatory Signs (R9-5, R9-6, R10-4, R10-24, R10-25, and R10-26) 9B-8
Section 9B.12 Shared-Use Path Restriction Sign (R9-7) 9B-8
Section 9B.13 Bicycle Signal Actuation Sign (R10-22) 9B-8
Section 9B.14 Other Regulatory Signs 9B-9
Section 9B.15 Turn or Curve Warning Signs (W1 Series) 9B-9
Section 9B.16 Intersection Warning Signs (W2 Series) 9B-10
Section 9B.17 Bicycle Surface Condition Warning Sign (W8-10) 9B-10
Section 9B.18 Bicycle Warning and Combined Bicycle/Pedestrian Signs (W11-1 and W11-15) 9B-11
Section 9B.19 Other Bicycle Warning Signs 9B-11
Section 9B.20 Bicycle Guide Signs (D1-1b, D1-1c, D1-2b, D1-2c, D1-3b, D1-3c, D11-1, D11-1c) 9B-11
Section 9B.21 Bicycle Route Signs (M1-8, M1-8a, M1-9) 9B-15
Section 9B.22 Bicycle Route Sign Auxiliary Plaques 9B-17
Section 9B.23 Bicycle Parking Area Sign (D4-3) 9B-18
Section 9B.24 Reference Location Signs (D10-1 through D10-3) and Intermediate Reference Location Signs (D10-1a through D10-3a) 9B-18
Section 9B.25 Mode-Specific Guide Signs for Shared-Use Paths (D11-1a, D11-2, D11-3, D11-4) 9B-18
Section 9B.26 Object Markers 9B-19
CHAPTER 9C. MARKINGS
Section 9C.01 Functions of Markings 9C-1
Section 9C.02 General Principles 9C-1
Section 9C.03 Marking Patterns and Colors on Shared-Use Paths 9C-1
Section 9C.04 Markings For Bicycle Lanes 9C-9
Section 9C.05 Bicycle Detector Symbol 9C-11
Section 9C.06 Pavement Markings for Obstructions 9C-11
Section 9C.07 Shared Lane Marking 9C-11
CHAPTER 9D. SIGNALS
Section 9D.01 Application 9D-1
Section 9D.02 Signal Operations for Bicycles 9D-1
APPENDIX A1. CONGRESSIONAL LEGISLATION
APPENDIX A2. METRIC CONVERSIONS
INDEX
 
MANUAL ON UNIFORM TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES
INTRODUCTION
Standard:
01 Traffic control devices shall be defined as all signs, signals, markings, and other devices used to regulate, warn, or guide traffic, placed on, over, or adjacent to a street, highway, pedestrian facility, bikeway, or private road open to public travel (see definition in Section 1A.13) by authority of a public agency or official having jurisdiction, or, in the case of a private road, by authority of the private owner or private official having jurisdiction.
02 The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) is incorporated by reference in 23 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 655, Subpart F and shall be recognized as the national standard for all traffic control devices installed on any street, highway, bikeway, or private road open to public travel (see definition in Section 1A.13) in accordance with 23 U.S.C. 109(d) and 402(a). The policies and procedures of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to obtain basic uniformity of traffic control devices shall be as described in 23 CFR 655, Subpart F.
03 In accordance with 23 CFR 655.603(a), for the purposes of applicability of the MUTCD:
A. Toll roads under the jurisdiction of public agencies or authorities or public-private partnerships shall be considered to be public highways;
B. Private roads open to public travel shall be as defined in Section 1A.13; and
C. Parking areas, including the driving aisles within those parking areas, that are either publicly or privately owned shall not be considered to be “open to public travel” for purposes of MUTCD applicability.
04 Any traffic control device design or application provision contained in this Manual shall be considered to be in the public domain. Traffic control devices contained in this Manual shall not be protected by a patent, trademark, or copyright, except for the Interstate Shield and any items owned by FHWA.
Support:
05 Pictographs, as defined in Section 1A.13, are embedded in traffic control devices but the pictographs themselves are not considered traffic control devices for the purposes of Paragraph 4.
06 The need for uniform standards was recognized long ago. The American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO), now known as the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), published a manual for rural highways in 1927, and the National Conference on Street and Highway Safety (NCSHS) published a manual for urban streets in 1930. In the early years, the necessity for unification of the standards applicable to the different classes of road and street systems was obvious. To meet this need, a joint committee of AASHO and NCSHS developed and published the original edition of this Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) in 1935. That committee, now called the National Committee on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (NCUTCD), though changed from time to time in name, organization, and personnel, has been in continuous existence and has contributed to periodic revisions of this Manual. The FHWA has administered the MUTCD since the 1971 edition. The FHWA and its predecessor organizations have participated in the development and publishing of the previous editions. There were nine previous editions of the MUTCD, and several of those editions were revised one or more times. Table I-1 traces the evolution of the MUTCD, including the two manuals developed by AASHO and NCSHS.
Standard:
07 The U.S. Secretary of Transportation, under authority granted by the Highway Safety Act of 1966, decreed that traffic control devices on all streets and highways open to public travel in accordance with 23 U.S.C. 109(d) and 402(a) in each State shall be in substantial conformance with the Standards issued or endorsed by the FHWA.
Support:
08 The “Uniform Vehicle Code (UVC)” is one of the publications referenced in the MUTCD. The UVC contains a model set of motor vehicle codes and traffic laws for use throughout the United States.
 
 
 
 
 
Guidance:
09 The States should adopt Section 15-116 of the UVC, which states that, “No person shall install or maintain in any area of private property used by the public any sign, signal, marking, or other device intended to regulate, warn, or guide traffic unless it conforms with the State manual and specifications adopted under Section 15-104.”
Support:
10 The Standard, Guidance, Option, and Support material described in this edition of the MUTCD provide the transportation professional with the information needed to make appropriate decisions regarding the use of traffic control devices on streets, highways, bikeways, and private roads open to public travel (see definition in Section 1A.13).
11 Throughout this Manual the headings Standard, Guidance, Option, and Support are used to classify the nature of the text that follows. Figures and tables, including the notes contained therein, supplement the text and might constitute a Standard, Guidance, Option, or Support. The user needs to refer to the appropriate text to classify the nature of the figure, table, or note contained therein.
Standard:
12 When used in this Manual, the text headings of Standard, Guidance, Option, and Support shall be as defined in Paragraph 1 of Section 1A.13.
Support:
13 Throughout this Manual all dimensions and distances are provided in English units. Appendix A2 contains tables for converting each of the English unit numerical values that are used in this Manual to the equivalent Metric (International System of Units) values.
Guidance:
14 If Metric units are to be used in laying out distances or determining sizes of devices, such units should be specified on plan drawings and made known to those responsible for designing, installing, or maintaining traffic control devices.
15 Except when a specific numeral is required or recommended by the text of a Section of this Manual, numerals displayed on the images of devices in the figures that specify quantities such as times, distances, speed limits, and weights should be regarded as examples only. When installing any of these devices, the numerals should be appropriately altered to fit the specific situation.
Support:
16 The following information will be useful when reference is being made to a specific portion of text in this Manual.
17 There are nine Parts in this Manual and each Part is comprised of one or more Chapters. Each Chapter is comprised of one or more Sections. Parts are given a numerical identification, such as Part 2 – Signs. Chapters are identified by the Part number and a letter, such as Chapter 2B – Regulatory Signs, Barricades, and Gates. Sections are identified by the Chapter number and letter followed by a decimal point and a number, such as Section 2B.03 – Size of Regulatory Signs.
18 Each Section is comprised of one or more paragraphs. The paragraphs are indented and are identified by a number. Paragraphs are counted from the beginning of each Section without regard to the intervening text headings (Standard, Guidance, Option, or Support). Some paragraphs have lettered or numbered items. As an example of how to cite this Manual, the phrase “Not less than 40 feet beyond the stop line” that appears in Section 4D.14 of this Manual would be referenced in writing as “Section 4D.14, P1, A.1,” and would be verbally referenced as “Item A.1 of Paragraph 1 of Section 4D.14.”
Standard:
19 In accordance with 23 CFR 655.603(b)(3), States or other Federal agencies that have their own MUTCDs or Supplements shall revise these MUTCDs or Supplements to be in substantial conformance with changes to the National MUTCD within 2 years of the effective date of the Final Rule for the changes. Substantial conformance of such State or other Federal agency MUTCDs or Supplements shall be as defined in 23 CFR 655.603(b)(1).
20 After the effective date of a new edition of the MUTCD or a revision thereto, or after the adoption thereof by the State, whichever occurs later, new or reconstructed devices installed shall be in compliance with the new edition or revision.
21 In cases involving Federal-aid projects for new highway or bikeway construction or reconstruction, the traffic control devices installed (temporary or permanent) shall be in conformance with the most recent edition of the National MUTCD before that highway is opened or re-opened to the public for unrestricted travel [23 CFR 655.603(d)(2) and (d)(3)].
22 Unless a particular device is no longer serviceable, non-compliant devices on existing highways and bikeways shall be brought into compliance with the current edition of the National MUTCD as part of the systematic upgrading of substandard traffic control devices (and installation of new required traffic control devices) required pursuant to the Highway Safety Program, 23 U.S.C. §402(a). The FHWA has the authority to establish other target compliance dates for implementation of particular changes to the MUTCD [23 CFR 655.603(d)(1)]. These target compliance dates established by the FHWA shall be as shown in Table I-2.
23 Except as provided in Paragraph 24, when a non-compliant traffic control device is being replaced or refurbished because it is damaged, missing, or no longer serviceable for any reason, it shall be replaced with a compliant device.
Option:
24 (DE Revision) A damaged, missing, or otherwise non-serviceable device that is non-compliant may be replaced in kind if engineering judgment indicates that:
A. One compliant device in the midst of a series of adjacent non-compliant devices would be confusing to road users; and/or
B. The schedule for replacement of the whole series of non-compliant devices will result in achieving timely compliance with the MUTCD.
C. The conversion to a compliant device would result in a significant delay in the installation of a safety-critical traffic control device (for instance, due to cost, engineering, environmental approval, etc.).