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Delaware General AssemblyDelaware RegulationsAdministrative CodeTitle 7100013001302

(Amended July 26, 1994)

Appendix IV. - Reference Air Concentrations*

Constituent

CAS No.

RAC (ug/m3)

Acetaldehyde

75-07-0

10

Acetonitrile

75-05-8

10

Acetophenone

98-86-2

100

Acrolein

107-02-8

20

Aldicarb

116-06-3

1

Aluminum Phosphide

20859-73-8

0.3

Allyl Alcohol

107-18-6

5

Antimony

7440-36-0

0.3

Barium

7440-39-3

50

Barium Cyanide

542-62-1

50

Bromomethane

74-83-9

0.8

Calcium Cyanide

592-01-8

30

Carbon Disulfide

75-15-0

200

Chloral

75-87-6

2

Chlorine (free)

 

0.4

2-Chloro-1,3-butadiene

126-99-8

3

Chromium III

16065-83-1

1000

Copper Cyanide

544-92-3

5

Cresols

1319-77-3

50

Cumene

98-82-8

1

Cyanide (free)

57-12-15

20

Cyanogen

460-19-5

30

Cyanogen Bromide

506-68-3

80

Di-n-butyl Phthalate

84-74-2

100

o-Dichlorobenzene

95-50-1

10

p-Dichlorobenzene

106-46-7

10

Dichlorodifluoromethane

75-71-8

200

2,4-Dichlorophenol

120-83-2

3

Diethyl Phthalate

84-66-2

800

Dimethoate

60-51-5

0.8

2,4-Dinitrophenol

51-28-5

2

Dinoseb

88-85-7

0.9

Diphenylamine

122-39-4

20

Endosulfan

115-29-1

0.05

Endrin

72-20-8

0.3

Fluorine

7782-41-4

50

Formic Acid

64-18-6

2000

Glycidyaldehyde

765-34-4

0.3

Hexachlorocyclopentadiene

77-47-4

5

Hexachlorophene

70-30-4

0.3

Hydrocyanic Acid

74-90-8

20

Hydrogen Chloride

7647-01-1

7

Hydrogen Sulfide

7783-06-4

3

Isobutyl Alcohol

78-83-1

300

Lead

7439-92-1

0.09

Maleic Anhydride

108-31-6

100

Mercury

7439-97-6

0.3

Methacrylonitrile

126-98-7

0.1

Methomyl

16752-77-5

20

Methoxychlor

72-43-5

50

Methyl Chlorocarbonate

79-22-1

1000

Methyl Ethyl Ketone

78-93-3

80

Methyl Parathion

298-00-0

0.3

Nickel Cyanide

557-19-7

20

Nitric Oxide

10102-43-9

100

Nitrobenzene

98-95-3

0.8

Pentachlorobenzene

608-93-5

0.8

Pentachlorophenol

87-86-5

30

Phenol

108-95-2

30

M-Phenylenediamine

108-45-2

5

Phenylmercuric Acetate

62-38-4

0.075

Phosphine

7803-51-2

0.3

Phthalic Anhydride

85-44-9

2000

Potassium Cyanide

151-50-8

50

Potassium Silver Cyanide

506-61-6

200

Pyridine

110-86-1

1

Selenious Acid

7783-60-8

3

Selenourea

630-10-4

5

Silver

7440-22-4

3

Silver Cyanide

506-64-9

100

Sodium Cyanide

143-33-9

30

Strychnine

57-24-9

0.3

1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene

95-94-3

0.3

2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

58-90-2

30

Tetraethyl Lead

78-00-2

0.0001

Tetrahydrofuran

109-99-9

10

Thallic Oxide

1314-32-5

0.3

Thallium

7440-28-0

0.5

Thallium (I) Acetate

563-68-8

0.5

Thallium (I) Carbonate

6533-73-9

0.3

Thallium (I) Chloride

7791-12-0

0.3

Thallium (I) Nitrate

10102-45-1

0.5

Thallium Selenite

12039-52-0

0.5

Thallium (I) Sulfate

7446-18-6

0.075

Thiram

137-26-8

5

Toluene

108-88-3

300

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

120-82-1

20

Trichloromonofluoromethane

75-69-4

300

2,4,5-Trichlorophenol

95-95-4

100

Vanadium Pentoxide

1314-62-1

20

Warfarin

81-81-2

0.3

Xylenes

1330-20-7

80

Zinc Cyanide

557-21-1

50

Zinc Phosphide

1314-84-7

0.3

*The RAC for other Appendix VIII Part 261 constituents not listed herein or in Appendix V of this part is 0.1 ug/m3.

(Amended July 26, 1994)

Appendix V.-Risk Specific Doses (10-5)

Constituent

CAS No.

Unit Risk (m3/ug)

RsD (ug/m3)

       

Acrylamide

79-06-1

1.3E-03

7.7E-03

Acrylonitrile

107-13-1

6.8E-05

1.5E-01

Aldrin

309-00-2

4.9E-03

2.0E-03

Aniline

62-53-3

7.4E-06

1.4E+00

Arsenic

7440-38-2

4.3E-03

2.3E-03

Benz(a)anthracene

56-55-3

8.9E-04

1.1E-02

Benzene

71-43-2

8.3E-06

1.2E+00

Benzidine

92-87-5

6.7E-02

1.5E-04

Benzo(a)pyrene

50-32-8

3.3E-03

3.0E-03

Beryllium

7440-41-7

2.4E-03

4.2E-03

Bis(2-chloroethyl)ether

111-44-4

3.3E-04

3.0E-02

Bis(chloromethyl)ether

542-88-1

6.2E-02

1.6E-04

Bis(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate

117-81-7

2.4E-07

4.2E+01

1,3-Butadiene

106-99-0

2.8E-04

3.6E-02

Cadmium

7440-43-9

1.8E-03

5.6E-03

Carbon Tetrachloride

56-23-5

1.5E-05

6.7E-01

Chlordane

57-74-9

3.7E-04

2.7E-02

Chloroform

67-66-3

2.3E-05

4.3E-01

Chloromethane

74-87-3

3.6E-06

2.8E+00

Chromium VI

7440-47-3

1.2E-02

8.3E-04

DDT

50-29-3

9.7E-05

1.0E-01

Dibenz(a,h)anthracene

53-70-3

1.4E-02

7.1E-04

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane

96-12-8

6.3E-03

1.6E-03

1,2-Dibromoethane

106-93-4

2.2E-04

4.5E-02

1,1-Dichloroethane

75-34-3

2.6E-05

3.8E-01

1,2-Dichloroethane

107-06-2

2.6E-05

3.8E-01

1,1-Dichloroethylene

75-35-4

5.0E-05

2.0E-01

1,3-Dichloropropene

542-75-6

3.5E-01

2.9E-05

Dieldrin

60-57-1

4.6E-03

2.2E-03

Diethylstilbestrol

56-53-1

1.4E-01

7.1E-05

Dimethylnitrosamine

62-75-9

1.4E-02

7.1E-04

2,4-Dinitrotoluene

121-14-2

8.8E-05

1.1E-01

1,2-Diphenylhydrazine

122-66-7

2.2E-04

4.5E-02

1,4-Dioxane

123-91-1

1.4E-06

7.1E+00

Epichlorohydrin

106-89-8

1.2E-06

8.3E+00

Ethylene Oxide

75-21-8

1.0E-04

1.0E-01

Ethylene Dibromide

106-93-4

2.2E-04

4.5E-02

Formaldehyde

50-00-0

1.3E-05

7.7E-01

Heptachlor

76-44-8

1.3E-03

7.7E-03

Heptachlor Epoxide

1024-57-3

2.6E-03

3.8E-03

Hexachlorobenzene

118-74-1

4.9E-04

2.0E-02

Hexachlorobutadiene

87-68-3

2.0E-05

5.0E-01

Alpha-hexachloro-cyclohexane

319-84-6

1.8E-03

5.6E-03

Beta-hexachloro-cyclohexane

319-85-7

5.3E-04

1.9E-02

Gamma-hexachloro-cyclohexane

58-89-9

3.8E-04

2.6E-02

Hexachlorocyclohexane, Technical

 

5.1E-04

2.0E-02

Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(1,2 Mixture)

 

1.3E+0

7.7E-06

Hexachloroethane

67-72-1

4.0E-06

2.5E+00

Hydrazine

302-01-2

2.9E-03

3.4E-03

Hydrazine Sulfate

302-01-2

2.9E-03

3.4E-03

3-Methylcholanthrene

56-49-5

2.7E-03

3.7E-03

Methyl Hydrazine

60-34-4

3.1E-04

3.2E-02

Methylene Chloride

75-09-2

4.1E-06

2.4E+00

4,4'-Methylene-bis-2-chloroaniline

101-14-4

4.7E-05

2.1E-01

Nickel

7440-02-0

2.4E-04

4.2E-02

Nickel Refinery Dust

7440-02-0

2.4E-04

4.2E-02

Nickel Subsulfide

12035-72-2

4.8E-04

2.1E-02

2-Nitropropane

79-46-9

2.7E-02

3.7E-04

N-Nitroso-n-butylamine

924-16-3

1.6E-03

6.3E-03

N-Nitroso-n-methylurea

684-93-5

8.6E-02

1.2E-04

N-Nitrosodiethylamine

55-18-5

4.3E-02

2.3E-04

N-Nitrosopyrrolidine

930-55-2

6.1E-04

1.6E-02

Pentachloronitrobenzene

82-68-8

7.3E-05

1.4E-01

PCBs

1336-36-3

1.2E-03

8.3E-03

Pronamide

23950-58-5

4.6E-06

2.2E+00

Reserpine

50-55-5

3.0E-03

3.3E-03

2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin

1746-01-6

4.5E+01

2.2E-07

1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

79-34-5

5.8E-05

1.7E-01

Tetrachloroethylene

127-18-4

4.8E-07

2.1E+01

Thiourea

62-56-6

5.5E-04

1.8E-02

1,1,2-Trichloroethane

79-00-5

1.6E-05

6.3E-01

Trichloroethylene

79-01-6

1.3E-06

7.7E+00

2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

88-06-2

5.7E-06

1.8E+00

Toxaphene

8001-35-2

3.2E-04

3.1E-02

Vinyl Chloride

75-01-4

7.1E-06

1.4E+00

Appendix VI. - Stack Plume Rise

[Estimated Plume Rise (in Meters) Based on Stack Exit Flow Rate and Gas Temperature]

Exhaust Temperature (Ko)

 

Flow rate (m3/s)

<325

325-

349

350-

399

400-

449

450-

499

500-

599

600-

699

700-

799

800-

999

1000-

1499

>1499

<0.5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.5-0.9

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1.0-1.9

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

3

3

3

4

2.0-2.9

0

0

1

3

4

4

6

6

7

8

9

3.0-3.9

0

1

2

5

6

7

9

10

11

12

13

4.0-4.9

1

2

4

6

8

10

12

13

14

15

17

5.0-7.4

2

3

5

8

10

12

14

16

17

19

21

7.5-9.9

3

5

8

12

15

17

20

22

22

23

24

10.0-12.4

4

6

10

15

19

21

23

24

25

26

27

12.5-14.9

4

7

12

18

22

23

25

26

27

28

29

15.0-19.9

5

8

13

20

23

24

26

27

28

29

31

20.0-24.9

6

10

17

23

25

27

29

30

31

32

34

25.0-29.9

7

12

20

25

27

29

31

32

33

35

36

30.0-34.9

8

14

22

26

29

31

33

35

36

37

39

35.0-39.9

9

16

23

28

30

32

35

36

37

39

41

40.0-49.9

10

17

24

29

32

34

36

38

39

41

42

50.0-59.9

12

21

26

31

34

36

39

41

42

44

46

60.0-69.9

14

22

27

33

36

39

42

43

45

47

49

70.0-79.9

16

23

29

35

38

41

44

46

47

49

51

80.0-89.9

17

25

30

36

40

42

46

48

49

51

54

90.0-99.9

19

26

31

38

42

44

48

50

51

53

56

100.0-119.9

21

26

32

39

43

46

49

52

53

55

58

120.0-139.9

22

28

35

42

46

49

52

55

56

59

61

140.0-159.9

23

30

36

44

48

51

55

58

59

62

65

160.0-179.9

25

31

38

46

50

54

58

60

62

65

67

180.0-199.9

26

32

40

48

52

56

60

63

65

67

70

>199.9

26

33

41

49

54

58

62

65

67

69

73

(Amended July 26, 1994)

Appendix VII. - Health-Based Limits for Exclusion of Waste-Derived Residues*

Metals - TCLP Extract Concentration Limits

Constituent

CAS No.

Concentration

limits (mg/L)

Antimony

7440-36-0

1xE+00

Arsenic

7440-38-2

5xE+00

Barium

7440-39-3

1xE+02

Beryllium

7440-41-7

7xE-03

Cadmium

7440-43-9

1xE+00

Chromium

7440-47-3

5xE+00

Lead

7439-92-1

5xE+00

Mercury

7439-97-6

2xE-01

Nickel

7440-02-0

7xE+01

Selenium

7782-49-2

1xE+00

Silver

Thallium

7440-22-4

7440-28-0

5xE+00

7xE+00

Nonmetals - Residue Concentration Limits

Constituent

CAS No.

Concentration limits for residues (mg/kg)

Acetonitrile

75-05-8

2xE-01

Acetophenone

98-86-2

4xE+00

Acrolein

107-02-8

5xE-01

Acrylamide

79-06-1

2xE-04

Acrylonitrile

107-13-1

7xE-04

Aldrin

309-00-2

2xE-05

Allyl alcohol

107-18-6

2xE-01

Aluminum phosphide

20859-73-8

1xE-02

Aniline

62-53-3

6xE-02

Barium cyanide

542-62-1

1xE+00

Benz(a)anthracene

56-55-3

1xE-04

Benzene

71-43-2

5xE-03

Benzidine

92-87-5

1xE-06

Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether

111-44-4

3xE-04

Bis(chloromethyl) ether

542-88-1

2xE-06

Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

117-81-7

3xE+01

Bromoform

75-25-2

7xE-01

Calcium cyanide

592-01-8

1xE-06

Carbon disulfide

75-15-0

4xE+00

Carbon tetrachloride

56-23-5

5xE-03

Chlordane

57-74-9

3xE-04

Chlorobenzene

108-90-7

1xE+00

Chloroform

67-66-3

6xE-02

Copper cyanide

544-92-3

2xE-01

Cresols (Cresylic acid)

1319-77-3

2xE+00

Cyanogen

460-19-5

1xE+00

DDT

50-29-3

1xE-03

Dibenz(a, h)-anthracene

53-70-3

7xE-06

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane

96-12-8

2xE-05

p-Dichlorobenzene

106-46-7

7.5xE-02

Dichlorodifluoromethane

75-71-8

7xE+00

1,1-Dichloroethylene

75-35-4

5xE-03

2,4-Dichlorophenol

120-83-2

1xE-01

1,3-Dichloropropene

542-75-6

1xE-03

Dieldrin

60-57-1

2xE-05

Diethyl phthalate

84-66-2

3xE+01

Diethylstilbesterol

56-53-1

7xE-07

Dimethoate

60-51-5

3xE-02

2,4-Dinitrotoluene

121-14-2

5xE-04

Diphenylamine

122-39-4

9xE-01

1,2-Diphenylhydrazine

122-66-7

5xE-04

Endosulfan

115-29-7

2xE-03

Endrin

72-20-8

2xE-04

Epichlorohydrin

106-89-8

4xE-02

Ethylene dibromide

106-93-4

4xE-07

Ethylene oxide

75-21-8

3xE-04

Fluorine

7782-41-4

4xE+00

Formic acid

64-18-6

7xE+01

Heptachlor

76-44-8

8xE-05

Heptachlor epoxide

1024-57-3

4xE-05

Hexachlorobenzene

118-74-1

2xE-04

Hexachlorobutadiene

87-68-3

5xE-03

Hexachlorocyclopentadiene

77-47-4

2xE-01

Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins

19408-74-3

6xE-08

Hexachloroethane

67-72-1

3xE-02

Hydrazine

302-01-1

1xE-04

Hydrogen cyanide

74-90-8

7xE-05

Hydrogen sulfide

7783-06-4

1xE-06

Isobutyl alcohol

78-83-1

1xE+01

Methomyl

16752-77-5

1xE+00

Methoxychlor

72-43-5

1xE-01

3-Methylcholanthrene

56-49-5

4xE-05

4,4'-Methylenebis (2-chloroaniline)

101-14-4

2xE-03

Methylene chloride

75-09-2

5xE-02

Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)

78-93-3

2xE+00

Methyl hydrazine

60-34-4

3xE-04

Methyl parathion

298-00-0

2xE-02

Naphthalene

91-20-3

1xE+01

Nickel cyanide

557-19-7

7xE-01

Nitric oxide

10102-43-9

4xE+00

Nitrobenzene

98-95-3

2xE-02

N-Nitrosodi-n-butylamine

924-16-3

6xE-05

N-Nitrosodiethylamine

55-18-5

2xE-06

N-Nitroso-N-methylurea

684-93-5

1xE-07

N-Nitrosopyrrolidine

930-55-2

2xE-04

Pentachlorobenzene

608-93-5

3xE-02

Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB)

82-68-8

1xE-01

Pentachlorophenol

87-86-5

1xE+00

Phenol

108-95-2

1xE+00

Phenylmercury acetate

62-38-4

3xE-03

Phosphine

7803-51-2

1xE-02

Polychlorinated biphenyls, N.O.S

1336-36-3

5xE-05

Potassium cyanide

151-50-8

2xE+00

Potassium silver cyanide

506-61-6

7xE+00

Pronamide

23950-58-5

3xE+00

Pyridine

110-86-1

4xE-02

Reserpine

50-55-5

3xE-05

Selenourea

630-10-4

2xE-01

Silver cyanide

506-64-9

4xE+00

Sodium cyanide

143-33-9

1xE+00

Strychnine

57-24-9

1xE-02

1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene

95-94-3

1xE-02

1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane

79-34-5

2xE-03

Tetrachloroethylene

127-18-4

7xE-01

2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

58-90-2

1xE-02

Tetraethyl lead

78-00-2

4xE-06

Thiourea

62-56-6

2xE-04

Toluene

108-88-3

1xE+01

Toxaphene

8001-35-2

5xE-03

1,1,2-Trichloroethane

79-00-5

6xE-03

Trichloroethylene

79-01-6

5xE-03

Trichloromonofluoromethane

75-69-4

1xE+01

2,4,5-Trichlorophenol

95-95-4

4xE+00

2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

88-06-2

4xE+00

Vanadium pentoxide

1314-62-1

7xE-01

Vinyl chloride

75-01-4

2xE-03

* Note 1: The health-based concentration limits for Appendix VIII Part 261 constituents for which a health-based concentration is not provided below is 2xE-06 mg/kg.

Note 2: The levels specified in this appendix and the default level of 0.002 micrograms per kilogram or the level of detection for constituents as identified in Note 1 of this appendix are administratively stayed under the condition, for those constituents specified in §266.112(b)(1), that the owner or operator complies with alternative levels defined as the land disposal restriction limits specified in §268.43 of these regulations for FO39 nonwastewaters. See §266.112(b)(2)(i).

(Amended July 26, 1994, July 23, 1996)

Appendix VIII. - Potential PICs for Determination of Exclusion of Waste-Derived Residues

PICs Found in Stack Effluents

Volatiles

Semivolatiles

Benzene

Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate

Toluene

Naphthalene

Carbon tetrachloride

Phenol

Chloroform

Diethyl phthalate

Methylene chloride

Butyl benzyl phthalate

Trichloroethylene

2,4-Dimethylphenol

Tetra chloroethylene

o-Dichlorobenzene

1,1,1-Trichloroethane

m-Dichlorobenzene

Chlorobenzene

p-Dichlorobenzene

cis-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene

Hexachlorobenzene

Bromochloromethane

2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

Bromodichloromethane

Fluoranthene

Bromoform

o-Nitrophenol

Bromomethane

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

Methylene bromide

o-Chlorophenol

Methyl ethyl ketone

Pentachlorophenol

 

Pyrene

 

Dimethyl phthalate

 

Mononitrobenzene

 

2,6-Toluene diisocyanate

 

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins1

 

Polychlorinated dibenzo-furans1

Note to the table: Analysis is not required for those compounds that do not have an established F039 nonwastewater concentration limit.

1 Analyses for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans are required only for residues collected from areas downstream of the combustion chamber (e.g., ductwork, boiler tubes, heat exchange surfaces, air pollution control devices, etc.).

(Amended July 26, 1994, April 23, 2001)

Appendix IX to Part 266 - Methods Manual for Compliance With the BIF Regulations

Burning Hazardous Waste in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Performance Specifications for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems

2.1 Performance Specifications for Continuous Emission Monitoring of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen for Incinerators, Boilers, and industrial Furnaces Burning Hazardous Waste

2.2 Performance Specifications for Continuous Emission Monitoring of Hydrocarbons for Incinerators, Boilers, and Industrial Furnaces

3.0 Sampling and Analytical Methods

3.1 Methodology for the Determination of Metals Emissions in Exhaust Gases from Hazardous Waste Incineration and Similar Combustion Processes

3.2 Determination of Hexavalent Chromium Emissions from Stationary Sources (Method Cr+6)

3.3 Measurement of HCl and Cl2

3.3.1 Isokinetic HCl/Cl2 Emission Sampling Train (Method 0050)

3.3.2 Midget Impinger HCl/Cl2 Emission Sampling Train (Method 0051)

3.3.3 Protocol for Analysis of Samples from HCl/Cl2 Emission Sampling Train (Method 9057)

3.4 Determination of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs) and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from Stationary Sources (Method 23)

3.5 Sampling for Aldehyde and Ketone Emissions from Stationary Sources (Method 0011)

3.6 Analysis for Aldehydes and Ketones by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) (Method 0011A)

4.0 Procedure for Estimating the Toxicity Equivalence of Chlorinated Dibenzo-P-Dioxin and Dibenzofuran Congeners

5.0 Hazardous Waste Combustion Air Quality Screening Procedure

6.0 Simplified Land Use Classification Procedure for Compliance with Tier I and Tier II Limits

7.0 Statistical Methodology for Bevill Residue Determinations

8.0 Procedures for Determining Default Values for Air Pollution Control System Removal Efficiencies

8.1 APCS RE Default Values for Metals

8.2 APCS RE Default Values for HCl and Cl2

8.3 APCS RE Default Values for Ash

8.4 References

9.0 Procedures for Determining Default Values for Partitioning of Metals, Ash, and Total Chloride/Chlorine

9.1 Partitioning Default Value for Metals

9.2 Special Procedures for Chlorine, HCl, and Cl2

9.3 Special Procedures for Ash

9.4 Use of Engineering Judgment to Estimate Partitioning and APCS RE Values

9.5 Restrictions on Use of Test Data

10.0 Alternate Methodology for Implementing Metals Controls

10.1 Applicability

10.2 Introduction

10.3 Basis

10.4 Overview

10.5 Implementation Procedures

10.6 Precompliance Procedures

Appendix A - Statistics

SECTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION

This document presents required methods for demonstrating compliance with Delaware Regulations Governing Hazardous Waste (DRGHW) for boilers and industrial furnaces (BIFs) burning hazardous waste (see Part 266, Subpart H). Included in this document are:

1. Performance Specifications for Continuous Emission Monitoring (CEM) of Carbon Monoxide, Oxygen, and Hydrocarbons in Stack Gases.

2. Sampling and Analytical (S&A) Methods for Multiple Metals, Hexavalent Chromium, HCl and Chlorine, Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans, and Aldehydes and Ketones.

3. Procedures for Estimating the Toxicity Equivalency of Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin and Dibenzofuran Congeners.

4. Hazardous Waste Combustion Air Quality Screening Procedures (HWCAQSP).

5. Simplified Land Use Classification Procedure for Compliance with Tier I and Tier II Limits.

6. Statistical Methodology for Bevill Residue Determinations.

7. Procedures for Determining Default Values for Air Pollution Control System Removal Efficiencies.

8. Procedures for Determining Default Values for Partitioning of Metals, Ash, and Total Chloride/Chlorine.

9. Alternate Methodology for Implementing Metals Controls.

Additional methods referenced in Subpart H of Part 266 but not included in this document can be found in 40 CFR Parts 60 and 61, and "Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Wastes, Physical/Chemical Methods" (SW-846).

The CEM performance specifications of section 2.0, the S&A methods of section 3.0 and the toxicity equivalency procedure for dioxins and furans of section 4.0 are required procedures for determining compliance with BIF regulations. The CEM performance specifications and the S&A methods are interim. The finalized CEM performance specifications and methods will be published in SW-846 or 40 CFR Parts 60 and 61.

SECTION 2.0 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS

2.1 Performance Specifications for Continuous Emission Monitoring of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen for Incinerators, Boilers, and Industrial Furnaces Burning Hazardous Waste

2.1.1 Applicability and Principle

2.1.1.1 Applicability. These performance specifications apply to carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen (O2) continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMSs) installed on incinerators, boilers, and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. The specifications include procedures which are intended to be used to evaluate the acceptability of the CEMS at the time of its installation or whenever specified in regulations or permits. The procedures are not designed to evaluate CEMS performance over an extended period of time. The source owner or operator is responsible for the proper calibration, maintenance, and operation of the CEMS at all times.

2.1.1.2 Principle. Installation and measurement location specifications, performance and equipment specifications, test and data reduction procedures, and brief quality assurance guidelines are included in the

specifications. Calibration drift, relative accuracy, calibration error, and response time tests are conducted to

determine conformance of the CEMS with the specifications.

2.1.2 Definitions

2.1.2.1 Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS). A continuous monitor is one in which the sample to be analyzed passes the measurement section of the analyzer without interruption, and which evaluates the detector response to the sample at least once each 15 seconds and computes and records the results at least every 60 seconds. A CEMS consists of all the equipment used to acquire data and includes the sample extraction and transport hardware, the analyzer(s), and the data recording/processing hardware and software.

2.1.2.2 Monitoring System Types. The specifications require CEMSs capable of accepting calibration gases. Alternative system designs may be used if approved by the Regional Administrator. There are two basic types of monitoring systems: extractive and in-situ.

2.1.2.2.1 Extractive. Systems that use a pump or other mechanical, pneumatic, or hydraulic means to draw a sample of the stack or flue gas and convey it to a remotely located analyzer.

2.1.2.2.2 In-situ. Systems that perform an analysis without removing a sample from the stack. Point in-situ analyzers place the sensing or detecting element directly in the flue gas stream. Cross-stack in-situ analyzers measure the parameter of interest by placing a source beam on one side of the stack and the detector (in single-pass instruments) or a retroreflector (in double-pass instruments) on the other side, and measuring the parameter of interest (e.g., CO) by the attenuation of the beam by the gas in its path.

2.1.2.3 Instrument Measurement Range. The difference between the minimum and maximum concentration that can be measured by a specific instrument. The minimum is often stated or assumed to be zero and the range expressed only as the maximum.

2.1.2.4 Span or Span Value. Full scale instrument measurement range.

2.1.2.5 Calibration Drift (CD). The difference in the CEMS output readings from the established reference value after a stated period of operation during which no unscheduled maintenance, repair, or adjustment takes place. A CD test is performed to demonstrate the stability of the CEMS calibration over time.

2.1.2.6 Response Time. The time interval between the start of a step change in the system input (e.g., change of calibration gas) and the time when the data recorder displays 95 percent of the final value.

2.1.2.7 Accuracy. A measure of agreement between a measured value and an accepted or true value, expressed as the percentage difference between the true and measured values relative to the true value. For these performance specifications, accuracy is checked by conducting a calibration error (CE) test and a relative accuracy (RA) test. Certain facilities, such as those using solid waste or batch-fed processes, may observe long periods of almost no CO emissions with brief, high-level CO emission spikes. These facilities, as well as facilities whose CO emissions never exceed 5-10 ppm, may need to be exempted from the RA requirement because the RA test procedure cannot ensure acquisition of meaningful test results under these conditions. An alternative procedure for accuracy determination is described in section 2.1.9.

2.1.2.8 Calibration Error (CE). The difference between the concentration indicated by the CEMS and the known concentration of the cylinder gas. A CE test procedure is performed to document the accuracy and linearity of the monitoring equipment over the entire measurement range.

2.1.2.9 Relative Accuracy (RA). A comparison of the CEMS response to a value measured by a performance test method (PTM). The RA test is used to validate the calibration technique and verify the ability of the CEMS to provide representative and accurate measurements.

2.1.2.10 Performance Test Method (PTM). The sampling and analysis procedure used to obtain reference measurements for comparison to CEMS measurements. The applicable test methods are Method 10, 10A, or 10B (for the determination of CO) and Method 3 or 3A (for the determination of O2). These methods are found in 40 CFR Part 60, Appendix A.

2.1.2.11 Performance Specification Test (PST) Period. The period during which CD, CE, response time, and RA tests are conducted.

2.1.2.12 Centroidal Area. A concentric area that is geometrically similar to the stack or duct cross section and is no greater than 1 percent of the stack or duct cross-sectional area.

2.1.3 Installation and Measurement Location Specifications

2.1.3.1 CEMS Installation and Measurement Locations. The CEMS shall be installed in a location in which measurements representative of the source's emissions can be obtained. The optimum location of the sample interface for the CEMS is determined by a number of factors, including ease of access for calibration and maintenance, the degree to which sample conditioning will be required, the degree to which it represents total emissions, and the degree to which it represents the combustion situation in the firebox. The location should be as free from in-leakage influences as possible and reasonably free from severe flow disturbances. The sample location should be at least two equivalent duct diameters downstream from the nearest control device, point of pollutant generation, or other point at which a change in the pollutant concentration or emission rate occurs and at least 0.5 diameter upstream from the exhaust or control device. The equivalent duct diameter is calculated as per 40 CFR Part 60, Appendix A, method 1, section 2.1. If these criteria are not achievable or if the location is otherwise less than optimum, the possibility of stratification should be checked as described in Section 2.1.3.3 to determine whether the location would cause failure of the relative accuracy test.

2.1.3.1.1 For extractive or point in-situ CEMSs, the measurement point should be within or centrally located over the centroidal area of the stack or duct cross section.

2.1.3.1.2 For cross-stack CEMSs, the effective measurement path should (1) have at least 70 percent of the path within the inner 50 percent of the stack or duct cross-sectional area or (2) be centrally located over any part of the centroidal area.

2.1.3.1.3 Both the CO and O2 monitors should be installed at the same general location. If this is not possible, they may be installed at different locations if the effluent gases at both sample locations are not stratified and there is no in-leakage of air between sampling locations.

2.1.3.2 Performance Test Method (PTM) Measurement Location and Traverse Points.

2.1.3.2.1 Select an accessible PTM measurement point at least two equivalent diameters downstream from the nearest control device, the point of CO generation, or other point at which a change in the CO concentration may occur, and at least a half equivalent diameter upstream from the effluent exhaust or control device. When pollutant concentration changes are due solely to diluent leakage (e.g., air heater leakages) and CO and O2 are simultaneously measured at the same location, one half diameter may be used in place of two equivalent diameters. The CEMS and PTM locations need not be the same.

2.1.3.2.2 Select traverse points that ensure acquisition of representative samples over the stack or duct cross section. At a minimum, establish a measurement line that passes through the centroidal area in the direction of any expected stratification. If this line interferes with the CEMS measurements, displace the line up to 30 cm (or 5 percent of the equivalent diameter of the cross section, whichever is less) from the centroidal area. Locate three traverse points at 17, 50, and 83 percent of the measurement line. If the measurement line is no longer than 2.4 meters and pollutant stratification is not expected, the tester may choose to locate the three traverse points on the line at 0.4, 1.2, and 2.0 meters from the stack or duct wall. This option must not be used at a site located within eight equivalent diameters downstream of a flow disturbance. The tester may select other traverse points, provided that they can be shown to the satisfaction of the Administrator to provide a representative sample over the stack or duct cross-section. Conduct all necessary PTM tests within 3 cm of the selected traverse points. Sampling must not be performed within 3 cm of the duct or stack inner wall.

2.1.3.3 Stratification Test Procedure. Stratification is defined as a difference in excess of 10 percent between the average concentration in the duct or stack and the concentration at any point more than 1.0 meter from the duct or stack wall. To determine whether effluent stratification exists, a dual probe system should be used to determine the average effluent concentration while measurements at each traverse point are being made. One probe, located at the stack or duct centroid, is used as a stationary reference point to indicate the change in effluent concentration over time. The second probe is used for sampling at the traverse points specified in method 1, Appendix A, 40 CFR Part 60. The monitoring system samples sequentially at the reference and traverse points throughout the testing period for five minutes at each point.

2.1.4 CEMS Performance and Equipment Specifications

Table 2.1-1 summarizes the performance specifications for the CEMSs. Two sets of standards for CO are given; one for low-range and another for high-range measurements. The high-range specifications relate to measurement and quantification of short duration high concentration peaks, while the low-range specifications relate to the overall average operating condition of the burning device. The dual-range specifications can be met by using (1) one analyzer for each range, (2) a dual range unit, or (3) a single measurement range instrument capable of meeting both specifications with a single unit. Adjustments cannot be made to the analyzer between determinations of low- and high-level accuracy within the single measurement range. In the second case, when the concentration exceeds the span of the lower range, the data acquisition system recorder shall switch to the high range automatically.

2.1.4.1 CEMS Span Value. In order to measure high and low concentrations with the same or similar degree of accuracy, the maximum ranges (span values) are specified for low and high range analyzers. The span values are listed in Table 2.1-2. Tier I and Tier II format definitions are established in Part 266, Subpart H.

Table 2.1-1 - Performance Specifications of CO and O2 Monitors

Parameter

CO Monitors

O2 Monitors

 

Low Range

High Range

 

Calibration drift 24 hours.

<6 ppm1

<90 ppm

<0.5% O2

Calibration error.

<10 ppm1

<150 ppm

<0.5% O2

Response time.

<2 min

< min

<2 min

Relative accuracy2.

(3)

(3)

(incorporated in CO RA calculation)

1For Tier II, CD and CE are <3% and <5% or twice the permit limit, respectively.

2Expressed as the sum of the mean absolute value plus the 95% confidence interval of a series of measurements.

3The greater of 10% of PTM or 10 ppm.

Table 2.1-2 - CEMS Span Values for CO and O2 Monitors

 

CO Monitors

 
 

Low range (ppm)

High range (ppm)

O2 Monitors (percent)

Tier I rolling average format.

200

3,000

25

Tier II rolling average format.

2 X permit limit.

3,000

25

2.1.4.2 Daily Calibration Gas Values. The owner or operator must choose calibration gas concentrations (or calibration filters for in-situ systems) that include zero and high-level calibration values for the daily calibration checks. For a single measurement range monitor, three CO calibration gas concentrations (or calibration filters for in-situ systems) shall be used, i.e., the zero and high-level concentrations of the low-range CO analyzer and the high-level concentration of the high-range CO analyzer.

2.1.4.2.1 The zero level for the CO or O2 analyzer may be between zero and 20 percent of the span value, e.g., 0-40 ppm for low-range CO analyzer, 0-600 ppm for the high-range CO analyzer, and 0-5 percent for the O2 analyzer (for Tier I).

2.1.4.2.2 The high-level concentration for the CO or O2 analyzer shall be between 50 and 90 percent of the span value, i.e., 100-180 ppm for the low-range CO analyzer, 1500-2700 ppm for the high-range CO analyzer, and 12.5-22.5 percent O2 for the O2 analyzer.

2.1.4.3 Data Recorder Scale. The strip chart recorder, computer, or digital recorder must be capable of recording all readings within the CEMS's measurement range and shall have a resolution of 0.5 percent of span value, i.e., 1 ppm CO for low-range CO analyzer, 15 ppm CO for high-range CO analyzer, and 0.1 percent O2 for the O2 analyzer.

2.1.4.4 Response Time. The response time for the CO or O2 monitor shall not exceed 2 minutes to achieve 95 percent of the final stable value.

2.1.4.5 Calibration Drift. The CEMS must allow the determination of CD at the zero and high-level values. The CD must be determined separately for CO and O2 monitors in terms of concentration. The CO CEMS calibration response must not drift or deviate from the reference value of the calibration gas (or calibration filters for in-situ systems) by more than 3 percent of the span value after each 24-hour period of the 7-day test, i.e., 6 ppm CO for the low-range analyzer (Tier I) and 90 ppm for the high-range analyzer, at both zero and high levels. The O2 monitor calibration response must not drift or deviate from the reference value by more than 0.5 percent O2 at both zero and high levels.

2.1.4.6 Relative Accuracy. The result of the RA test of the CO CEMS (which incorporates the O2 monitor) must be no greater than 10 percent of the mean value of the PTM results or must be within 10 ppm CO of the PTM results, whichever is less restrictive. The ppm CO concentration shall be corrected to 7 percent O2 before calculating the RA.

2.1.4.7 Calibration Error. The mean difference between the CEMS and reference values at all three test points (see Table 2.1-3) must be no greater than 5 percent of span value for CO monitors (i.e., 10 ppm CO for low range Tier I CO analyzers and 150 ppm CO for high range CO analyzers) and 0.5 percent for O2 analyzers.

2.1.4.8 Measurement and Recording Frequency. The sample to be analyzed shall pass through the measurement section of the analyzer without interruption. The detector shall measure the sample concentration at least once every 15 seconds. An average emission rate shall be computed and recorded at least once every 60 seconds.

2.1.4.9 Hourly Rolling Average Calculation. The CEMS shall calculate every minute an hourly rolling average, which is the arithmetic mean of the 60 most recent 1-minute average values.

2.1.4.10 Retest. If the CEMS produces results within the specified criteria, the test is successful. If the CEMS does not meet one or more of the criteria, the necessary corrections must be made and the performance tests repeated.

2.1.5 Test Periods

2.1.5.1 Pretest Preparation Period. Install the CEMS, prepare the PTM test site according to the specifications in section 2.1.3, and prepare the CEMS for operation and calibration according to the manufacturer's written instructions. A pretest conditioning period similar to that of the 7-day CD test is recommended to verify the operational status of the CEMS.

2.1.5.2 Calibration Drift Test Period. While the facility is operating under normal conditions, determine the CD at 24-hour intervals for seven consecutive days according to the procedure given in section 2.1.6.1. All CD determinations must be made following a 24-hour period during which no unscheduled maintenance, repair, or adjustment takes place. If the combustion unit is taken out of service during the test period, record the onset and duration of the downtime and continue the calibration drift test when the unit resumes operation.

2.1.5.3 Relative Accuracy Test Period. Conduct the RA test according to the procedure in section 2.1.6.4 while the facility is operating under normal conditions. RA testing for CO and O2 shall be conducted simultaneously so that the results can be calculated for CO corrected to 7 percent O2. The RA test shall be conducted during the CD test period. It is emphasized that during the CD test period, no adjustments or repairs may be made to the CEMS other than routine calibration adjustments performed immediately following the daily CD determination.

2.1.5.4 Calibration Error Test and Response Time Test Periods. Conduct the CE and response time tests during the CD test period.

2.1.6 Performance Specification Test Procedures

2.1.6.1 Calibration Drift Test.

2.1.6.1.1 Sampling Strategy. Conduct the CD test for all monitors at 24-hour intervals for seven consecutive days using calibration gases at the two (or three, if applicable) concentration levels specified in section 2.1.4.2. Introduce the calibration gases into the sampling system as close to the sampling probe outlet as practical. The gas shall pass through all filters, scrubbers, conditioners, and other CEMS components used during normal sampling. If periodic automatic or manual adjustments are made to the CEMS zero and calibration settings, conduct the CD test immediately before these adjustments, or conduct it in such a way that the CD can be determined. Record the CEMS response and subtract this value from the reference (calibration gas) value. To meet the specification, none of the differences shall exceed the limits specified in Table 2.1-1.

2.1.6.1.2 Calculations. Summarize the results on a data sheet. An example is shown in Figure 2.1-1. Calculate the differences between the CEMS responses and the reference values.

2.1.6.2 Response Time. Check the entire CEMS including sample extraction and transport, sample conditioning, gas analyses, and the data recording.

2.1.6.2.1 Introduce zero gas into the system. For extractive systems, introduce the calibration gases at the probe as near to the sample location as possible. For in-situ system, introduce the zero gas at a point such that all components active in the analysis are tested. When the system output has stabilized (no change

greater than 1 percent of full scale for 30 seconds), switch to monitor stack effluent and wait for a stable value.

Record the time (upscale response time) required to reach 95 percent of the final stable value.

2.1.6.2.2 Next, introduce a high-level calibration gas and repeat the above procedure. Repeat the entire procedure three times and determine the mean upscale and downscale response times. The longer of the two means is the system response time.

2.1.6.3 Calibration Error Test Procedure.

2.1.6.3.1 Sampling Strategy. Challenge each monitor (both low- and high-range CO and O2) with zero gas and EPA Protocol 1 cylinder gases at three measurement points within the ranges specified in Table 2.1-3.

Table 2.1-3 - Calibration Error Concentration Ranges for Tier I

 

GAS Concentration Ranges

 

CO, ppm

 

Measurement Point

Low Range1

High Range

O2 Percent

1

0-40

0-600

0-2

2

60-80

900-1200

8-10

3

140-160

2100-2400

14-16

1For Tier II, the CE specifications for the low-range CO CEMS are 0-20%, 30-40%, and 70-80% of twice the permit limit.

SOURCE:

DATE:

MONITOR:

LOCATION:

SERIAL NUMBER:

SPAN:

LOW RANGE

 

HIGH RANGE

 

 

DAY

DATE

TIME

CALIBRATION VALUE

MONITOR RESPONSE

DIFFERENCE

% OF SPAN*

 

1

           
 

2

           

ZERO

3

           

LOW

4

           

LEVEL

5

           
 

6

           
 

7

           
 

1

           
 

2

           

HIGH

3

           

LEVEL

4

           
 

5

           
 

6

           
 

7

           

* Acceptance Criteria < 5% of span each day for seven days.

Figure 2.1-1 Calibration Drift Determination

2.1.6.3.1.1 If a single measurement range is used, the calibration gases used in the daily CD checks (if they are Protocol 1 cylinder gases and meet the criteria in section 2.1.6.3.1) may be used for determining CE.

2.1.6.3.1.2 Operate each monitor in its normal sampling mode as nearly as possible. The calibration gas shall be injected into the sample system as close to the sampling probe outlet as practical and should pass through all CEMS components used during normal sampling. Challenge the CEMS three non-consecutive times at each measurement point and record the responses. The duration of each gas injection should be sufficient to ensure that the CEMS surfaces are conditioned.

2.1.6.3.2 Calculations. Summarize the results on a data sheet. An example data sheet is shown in Figure 2.1-2. Average the differences between the instrument response and the certified cylinder gas value for each gas. Calculate three CE results (five CE results for a single-range CO CEMS) according to Equation 5 (section 2.1.7.5). No confidence coefficient is used in CE calculations.

2.1.6.4 Relative Accuracy Test Procedure.

2.1.6.4.1 Sampling Strategy for PTM tests. Conduct the PTM tests in such a way that they will yield measurements representative of the emissions from the source and can be correlated to the CEMS data. Although it is preferable to conduct the CO, diluent, and moisture (if needed) simultaneously, moisture measurements that are taken within a 60-minute period which includes the simultaneous CO and O2 measurements may be used to calculate the dry CO concentration.

Note: At times, CEMS RA tests may be conducted during incinerator performance tests. In these cases, PTM results obtained during CEMS RA tests may be used to determine compliance with incinerator emissions limits as long as the source and test conditions are consistent with the applicable regulations.

SOURCE:

DATE:

MONITOR:

LOCATION:

SERIAL NUMBER:

SPAN:

LOW RANGE

 

HIGH RANGE

 

RUN NUMBER

CALIBRATION VALUE

MONITOR RESPONSE

DIFFERENCE

     

ZERO/LOW

MID

HIGH

1 - ZERO

         

2 - MID

         

3 - HIGH

         

4 - MID

         

5 - ZERO

         

6 - HIGH

         

7 - ZERO

         

8 - MID

         

9 - HIGH

         
 

MEAN DIFFERENCE =

     
 

CALIBRATION ERROR =

%

%

%

Figure 2.1-2 Calibration Error Determination

2.1.6.4.2 Performance Test Methods.

2.1.6.4.2.1 Unless otherwise specified in the regulations, method 3 or 3A and method 10, 10A, or 10B (40 CFR Part 60, Appendix A) are the test methods for O2 and CO, respectively. Make a sample traverse of at least 21 minutes, sampling for 7 minutes at each of three traverse points (see section 3.2).

2.1.6.4.2.2 When the installed CEMS uses a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer, method 10 shall use the alternative interference trap specified in section 10.1 of the method. An option, which may be approved by the Administrator in certain cases, would allow the test to be conducted using method 10 without the interference trap. Under this option, a laboratory interference test is performed for the analyzer prior to the field test. The laboratory interference test includes the analysis of SO2, NO, and CO2 calibration gases over the range of expected effluent concentrations. Acceptable performance is indicated if the CO analyzer response to each of the gases is less than 1 percent of the applicable measurement range of the analyzer.

2.1.6.4.3 Number of PTM Tests. Conduct a minimum of nine sets of all necessary PTM tests. If more than nine sets are conducted, a maximum of three sets may be rejected at the tester's discretion. The total number of sets used to determine the RA must be greater than or equal to nine. All data, including the rejected data, must be reported.

2.1.6.4.4 Correlation of PTM and CEMS Data. The time and duration of each PTM test run and the CEMS response time should be considered in correlating the data. Use the CEMS final output (the one used for reporting) to determine an integrated average CO concentration for each PTM test run. Confirm that the pair of results are on a consistent moisture and O2 concentration basis. Each integrated CEMS value should then be compared against the corresponding average PTM value. If the CO concentration measured by the CEMS is normalized to a specified diluent concentration, the PTM results shall be normalized to the same value.

2.1.6.4.5 Calculations. Summarize the results on a data sheet. Calculate the mean of the PTM values and calculate the arithmetic differences between the PTM and the CEMS data sets. The mean of the differences, standard deviation, confidence coefficient, and CEMS RA should be calculated using Equations 1 through 4.

2.1.7 Equations

2.1.7.1 Arithmetic Mean (d). Calculate d of the difference of a data set using Equation 1.

where: = Number of data points.

When the mean of the differences of pairs of data is calculated, correct the data for moisture, if applicable.

2.1.7.2 Standard Deviation (). Calculate using Equation 2.

(Eq. 2)

2.1.7.3 Confidence Coefficient (CC). Calculate the 2.5 percent error CC (one-tailed) using Equation 3.

CC = t0.975 Sd (Eq. 3)

n

where:

t0.975 = t-value (see Table 2.1-4).

Table 2.1-4-t-Values

na

t0.975

na

t0.975

na

t0.975

2

12.706

7

2.447

12

2.201

3

4.303

8

2.365

13

2.179

4

3.182

9

2.306

14

2.160

5

2.776

10

2.662

15

2.145

6

2.571

11

2.228

16

2.131

aThe values in this table are already corrected for n-1 degrees of freedom.

Use n equal to the number of individual values.

2.1.7.4 Relative Accuracy. Calculate the RA of a set of data using Equation 4.

(Eq. 4)

where:

= Absolute value of the mean of the differences (Equation 1).

= Absolute value of the confidence coefficient (Equation 3).

= Average reference value.

2.1.7.5 Calibration Error. Calculate CE using Equation 5.

(Eq. 5)

where:

= Mean difference between CEMS response and the known reference concentration.

2.1.8 Reporting

At a minimum, summarize in tabular form the results of the CD, RA, response time, and CE test, as appropriate. Include all data sheets, calculations, CEMS data records, and cylinder gas or reference material certifications.

2.1.9 Alternative Procedure

2.1.9.1 Alternative RA Procedure Rationale. Under some operating conditions, it may not be possible to obtain meaningful results using the RA test procedure. This includes conditions where consistent, very low CO emissions or low CO emissions interrupted periodically by short duration, high level spikes are observed. It may be appropriate in these circumstances to waive the PTM RA test and substitute the following procedure.

2.1.9.2 Alternative RA Procedure. Conduct a complete CEMS status check following the manufacturer's written instructions. The check should include operation of the light source, signal receiver, timing mechanism functions, data acquisition and data reduction functions, data recorders, mechanically operated functions (mirror movements, calibration gas valve operations, etc.), sample filters, sample line heaters, moisture traps, and other related functions of the CEMS, as applicable. All parts of the CEMS must be functioning properly before the RA requirement can be waived. The instruments must also have successfully passed the CE and CD requirements of the performance specifications. Substitution of the alternative procedure requires approval of the Regional Administrator.

2.1.10 Quality Assurance (QA)

Proper calibration, maintenance, and operation of the CEMS is the responsibility of the owner or operator. The owner or operator must establish a QA program to evaluate and monitor CEMS performance. As a minimum, the QA program must include:

2.1.10.1 A daily calibration check for each monitor. The calibration must be adjusted if the check indicates the instrument's CD exceeds the specification established in section 2.1.4.5. The gases shall be injected as close to the probe as possible to provide a check of the entire sampling system. If an alternative calibration procedure is desired (e.g., direct injections or gas cells), subject to Administrator approval, the adequacy of this alternative procedure may be demonstrated during the initial 7-day CD test. Periodic comparisons of the two procedures are suggested.

2.1.10.2 A daily system audit. The audit must include a review of the calibration check data, an inspection of the recording system, an inspection of the control panel warning lights, and an inspection of the sample transport and interface system (e.g., flowmeters, filters), as appropriate.

2.1.10.3 A quarterly calibration error (CE) test. Quarterly RA tests may be substituted for the CE test when approved by the Director on a case-by-case basis.

2.1.10.4 An annual performance specification test.

2.1.11 References

1. Jahnke, James A. and G.J. Aldina, "Handbook: Continuous Air Pollution Source Monitoring Systems," U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268, EPA-625/6-79-005, June 1979.

2. "Gaseous Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems-Performance Specification Guidelines for SO2, NOx, CO2, O2, and TRS." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency OAQPS, ESED, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, EPA-450/3-82-026, October 1982.

3. "Quality Assurance Handbook for Air Pollution Measurement Systems: Volume I. Principles." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ORD/EMSL, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711, EPA-600/9-76-006, December 1984.

4. Michie, Raymond, M. Jr., et. al., "Performance Test Results and Comparative Data for Designated Reference Methods for Carbon Monoxide," U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ORD/EMSL, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711, EPA-600/S4-83-013, September 1982.

5. Ferguson, B.B., R.E. Lester, and W.J. Mitchell, "Field Evaluation of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen Sulfide Continuous Emission Monitors at an Oil Refinery," U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711, EPA-600/4-82-054, August 1982.

2.2 Performance Specifications for Continuous Emission Monitoring of Hydrocarbons for Incinerators, Boilers, and Industrial Furnaces Burning Hazardous Waste

2.2.1 Applicability and Principle

2.2.1.1 Applicability. These performance specifications apply to hydrocarbon (HC) continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMSs) installed on incinerators, boilers, and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. The specifications include procedures which are intended to be used to evaluate the acceptability of the CEMS at the time of its installation or whenever specified in regulations or permits. The procedures are not designed to evaluate CEMS performance over an extended period of time. The source owner or operator is responsible for the proper calibration, maintenance, and operation of the CEMS at all times.

2.2.1.2 Principle. A gas sample is extracted from the source through a heated sample line and heated filter (except as provided by section 2.2.10) to a flame ionization detector (FID). Results are reported as volume concentration equivalents of propane. Installation and measurement location specifications, performance and equipment specifications, test and data reduction procedures, and brief quality assurance guidelines are included in the specifications. Calibration drift, calibration error, and response time tests are conducted to determine conformance of the CEMS with the specifications.

2.2.2 Definitions

2.2.2.1 Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS). The total equipment used to acquire data, which includes sample extraction and transport hardware, analyzer, data recording and processing hardware, and software. The system consists of the following major subsystems:

2.2.2.1.1 Sample Interface. That portion of the system that is used for one or more of the following: Sample acquisition, sample transportation, sample conditioning, or protection of the analyzer from the effects of the stack effluent.

2.2.2.1.2 Organic Analyzer. That portion of the system that senses organic concentration and generates an output proportional to the gas concentration.

2.2.2.1.3 Data Recorder. That portion of the system that records a permanent record of the measurement values. The data recorder may include automatic data reduction capabilities.

2.2.2.2 Instrument Measurement Range. The difference between the minimum and maximum concentration that can be measured by a specific instrument. The minimum is often stated or assumed to be zero and the range expressed only as the maximum.

2.2.2.3 Span or Span Value. Full scale instrument measurement range.

2.2.2.4 Calibration Gas. A known concentration of a gas in an appropriate diluent gas.

2.2.2.5 Calibration Drift (CD). The difference in the CEMS output readings from the established reference value after a stated period of operation during which no unscheduled maintenance, repair, or adjustment takes place. A CD test is performed to demonstrate the stability of the CEMS calibration over time.

2.2.2.6 Response Time. The time interval between the start of a step change in the system input (e.g., change of calibration gas) and the time when the data recorder displays 95 percent of the final value.

2.2.2.7 Accuracy. A measurement of agreement between a measured value and an accepted or true value, expressed as the percentage difference between the true and measured values relative to the true value. For these performance specifications, accuracy is checked by conducting a calibration error (CE) test.

2.2.2.8 Calibration Error (CE). The difference between the concentration indicated by the CEMS and the known concentration of the cylinder gas. A CE test procedure is performed to document the accuracy and linearity of the monitoring equipment over the entire measurement range.

2.2.2.9 Performance Specification Test (PST) Period. The period during which CD, CE, and response time tests are conducted.

2.2.2.10 Centroidal Area. A concentric area that is geometrically similar to the stack or duct cross section and is no greater than 1 percent of the stack or duct cross-sectional area.

2.2.3 Installation and Measurement Location Specifications

2.2.3.1 CEMS Installation and Measurement Locations. The CEMS shall be installed in a location in which measurements representative of the source's emissions can be obtained. The optimum location of the sample interface for the CEMS is determined by a number of factors, including ease of access for calibration and maintenance, the degree to which sample conditioning will be required, the degree to which it represents total emissions, and the degree to which it represents the combustion situation in the firebox. The location should be as free from in-leakage influences as possible and reasonably free from severe flow disturbances. The sample location should be at least two equivalent duct diameters downstream from the nearest control device, point of pollutant generation, or other point at which a change in the pollutant concentration or emission rate occurs and at least 0.5 diameter upstream from the exhaust or control device. The equivalent duct diameter is calculated as per 40 CFR Part 60, Appendix A, method 1, section 2.1. If these criteria are not achievable or if the location is otherwise less than optimum, the possibility of stratification should be investigated as described in section 2.2.3.2. The measurement point shall be within the centroidal area of the stack or duct cross section.

2.2.3.2 Stratification Test Procedure. Stratification is defined as a difference in excess of 10 percent between the average concentration in the duct or stack and the concentration at any point more than 1.0 meter from the duct or stack wall. To determine whether effluent stratification exists, a dual probe system should be used to determine the average effluent concentration while measurements at each traverse point are being made. One probe, located at the stack or duct centroid, is used as a stationary reference point to indicate the change in effluent concentration over time. The second probe is used for sampling at the traverse points specified in 40 CFR Part 60 Appendix A, method 1. The monitoring system samples sequentially at the reference and traverse points throughout the testing period for five minutes at each point.

2.2.4 CEMS Performance and Equipment Specifications

If this method is applied in highly explosive areas, caution and care shall be exercised in choice of equipment and installation.

2.2.4.1 Flame Ionization Detector (FID) Analyzer. A heated FID analyzer capable of meeting or exceeding the requirements of these specifications. Heated systems shall maintain the temperature of the sample gas between 150 oC (300 oF) and 175 oC (350 oF) throughout the system. This requires all system components such as the probe, calibration valve, filter, sample lines, pump, and the FID to be kept heated at all times such that no moisture is condensed out of the system.

Note: As specified in the regulations, unheated HC CEMs may be considered an acceptable interim alternative monitoring technique. For additional notes, see section 2.2.10. The essential components of the measurement system are described below:

2.2.4.1.1 Sample Probe. Stainless steel, or equivalent, to collect a gas sample from the centroidal area of the stack cross-section.

2.2.4.1.2 Sample Line. Stainless steel or Teflon tubing to transport the sample to the analyzer.

Note: Mention of trade names or specific products does not constitute endorsement by the Environmental Protection Agency.

2.2.4.1.3 Calibration Valve Assembly. A heated three-way valve assembly to direct the zero and calibration gases to the analyzer is recommended. Other methods, such as quick-connect lines, to route calibration gas to the analyzers are applicable.

2.2.4.1.4 Particulate Filter. An in-stack or out-of-stack sintered stainless steel filter is recommended if exhaust gas particulate loading is significant. An out-of-stack filter must be heated.

2.2.4.1.5 Fuel. The fuel specified by the manufacturer (e.g., 40 percent hydrogen/60 percent helium, 40 percent hydrogen/60 percent nitrogen gas mixtures, or pure hydrogen) should be used.

2.2.4.1.6 Zero Gas. High purity air with less than 0.1 parts per million by volume (ppm) HC as methane or carbon equivalent or less than 0.1 percent of the span value, whichever is greater.

2.2.4.1.7 Calibration Gases. Appropriate concentrations of propane gas (in air or nitrogen). Preparation of the calibration gases should be done according to the procedures in EPA Protocol 1. In addition, the manufacturer of the cylinder gas should provide a recommended shelf life for each calibration gas cylinder over which the concentration does not change by more than ± 2 percent from the certified value.

2.2.4.2 CEMS Span Value. 100 ppm propane.

2.2.4.3 Daily Calibration Gas Values. The owner or operator must choose calibration gas concentrations that include zero and high-level calibration values.

2.2.4.3.1 The zero level may be between 0 and 20 ppm (zero and 20 percent of the span value).

2.2.4.3.2 The high-level concentration shall be between 50 and 90 ppm (50 and 90 percent of the span value).

2.2.4.4 Data Recorder Scale. The strip chart recorder, computer, or digital record